◎ Note-taking in the Independent Task
如：If you could have any job in the world, what would it be? Use details to support your. response；
如：Do you like to try new kinds of food or eat the same kind of food all the time? Use details and examples to support your response,
▲ TST ( Topic-Supporting ideas—Transitions
Where would you want to be professionally in ten years? Use details to support your response.
考生應迅速在紙上寫下“own bus...”、“master”、“work com...”、“start”等資訊見以下TST( Topic—Supporting ideas—Transitions )表格。
◇ Topic statement:
*own bus... (I would like to own my own business) Supporting ideas:
( How I will work toward owning my business)
* master (Will get master's in business )
*work com... (Will work in company while planning my business)
* start (Will start my own business when I am ready)
* Transitions: 10 next because 3 within 10 y (可用y代替 years)
◇ Sample Answer
In ten years I would like to win an import business of my own. Next year, I will be starting a master's program in business with a specialization in entrepreneurship. I will be getting this degree because I hope to start my own business and make it successful some day. After I finish my master's degree three years from now, I will most likely take a position in another company for a few years to make some money and to spend some time planning my own business. Within ten years, I hope to own my own company and be on the way to making it a success.
Sometimes students have to write papers. Sometimes they have to give oral presentations. Which activity do you think is better for students, and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.
考生應迅速在紙上寫下“pap”、“strong read write exams”、“more time think deeply”等信息。見以下TST( Topic—Supporting ideas—Transitions )表格：
◇ Topic: pap (writing papers is better for students) Supporting ideas: (Why writing papers is better)
* strong read write exams (need strong writing skills for reading and writing and prepare for exams)
* more time think deeply(show understanding for more time to explain and think deeply)
◇ Transitions: firstly because, so also Sample Answer
I think writing papers is better for students. Firstly we need to develop strong writing skills. We go to school mainly to learn reading and writing, so we need a lot of practice. Examinations require a lot of writing, so writing papers is good reparation. Also, I think writing is a better way to show that I understand. When I write a paper, I can think deeply because I have more time to explain my ideas.
1. Describe a place that you consider to be beautiful. Explain why certain qualities of this place make it beautiful. Include details and examples to support your explanation. )
2. Some people relax by staying home. Others relax by going out. Which type of relaxation is better for your and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.-
3. Describe an occasion when you were surprised. What happened to you, and why did you feel surprised? Include details and examples in your explanation.
4. Some students prepare for tests by studying alone. Others prepare for tests by studying with other students or a tutor. Which study method do you think is better, and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.)
5.What type of home would you like to live in? Describe the characteristics of such a home and explain why you would like to live there. Include details and examples in your explanation.
6. Some people exercise early in the morning. Others exercise in the afternoon or evening. Which time of day do you think is better for exercising and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.
◎ Note-taking in the Integrated Tasks
first, later, next, finally, before, after, now, previously, last, then, when, immediately, formerly, subsequently, presently, initially, ultimately meanwhile
for example, such as, for instance, illustrate
Black English used to be considered simply poor English until linguists realized that the so-called errors were actually consistent alternative grammatical forms, some of which originated in African linguistic patterns. For example, the word "be"
and, too, finally, furthermore, first(ly), second, third, last, another, next
Firstly, I would like to talk about classical music and its representative composers. Next I would like to talk about Jazz music and some influential albums in the history of Jazz. Finally, I will move on to pop music in the last century.
also, in addition, and, further, another, as well as
A computer is often called a “thinking machine,” and in many ways it is just that. Computers perform difficult and timesaving mathematical computations, as well as problems in logic and reasoning. In addition, computers run other machines and answer questions. Also, they are used to guide astronauts on take-off.
比較或反差 Comparison or Contrast
like, likewise, as, similarly, at the same time, as well as, both, all, in comparison,
on the other hand, in contrast, despite, nevertheless,
yet, instead, rather, notwithstanding, though, regardless, unlike, although, even though, whereas but, in spite of, on the contrary, however
The sex of the instructor affected the extent of active student participation. In classes taught by men with roughly equal proportions of male and female students, male students were responsible for about 75% of all class discussion. Similarly, with women as instructors, female student participation rose from 25% to 42%; in contrast, male participation slipped from 75% to 58%.
important to note, most, above all, especially valuable, a central issue, especially relevant, should be noted, the most substantial issue, remember that, a major event, the principal item, pay particular attention to, the chief factor, most of all, a significant factor, a primary concern, a key feature, the main value
Although the resources of our world are
limited, the wants of people are not. Indeed, one of the most important assumptions of economics is that the total human wants can never be satisfied. No matter how much we have, we seem to want more. As people's income increase, so does their desire for more and better goods and services.
because, accordingly, for this reason, hence, resulting, as a result, o, then, thus, therefore, since, consequently
Atherosclerosis is the result of the buildup of fat, fibrin, parts of dead cells, and calcium on the inside of the arteries. No one knows what causes this disease, but a number of things can speed its development. These include smoking cigarettes and eating animal fat and cholesterol. Others include age, hypertension, diabetes, stress, heredity, and sex (males have more heart attacks).
thus, in short, to conclude, in brief, in the end, in summary, to reiterate, in conclusion, to sum up, finally, therefore, thus, as already stated
Euthanasia is defined as mercy killing, either by the sick people themselves or by their relatives or close friends. One controversial doctor is a strong proponent of this act: Dr. Jack Krevorkian. Dr. Krevorkian has publicly admitted to giving assistance to people who have committed suicide. As a result, he has been called a saint by some, a murderer by others.
define, is defined as, known as, that is, the term means, we mean, we can state, we refer to
Our country has been obsessed with youth for far too many years. Age has been defined only as a decline from a peak of youth. Age is a fate worse than death. Negative stereotypes of older people are reinforced daily in the popular media, which contain very few examples of anyone 60 or older doing anything active or dynamic in society.
as a result
*One of the most persistent desires of human beings has been to indulge in mood-hanging and pleasure-giving practices. For instance, diverse cultures have engaged in the drinking of alcoholic beverages of all descriptions. But as with most pleasure, overindulgence can be harmful to oneself and others. Also, not everyone agrees that drinking or using other mood modifiers should be an accepted pleasure.
(4 signal words)
* Energy is used to cause chemical changes. For example, a chemical change occurs in the electroplating of metals when electrical energy is passed through a salt solution in which the metal is submerged. A chemical change also occurs when radiant energy from the sun is utilized by plants in the process of photosynthesis. Moreover, as we say, a chemical change occurs when heat causes mercuric oxide to decompose. Chemical changes are often used to produce energy rather than new substances. The heat or thrust generated during the combustion of fuels is more important than the products formed. (5 signal words)]
* But even those pre-agricultural people who had fairly stationary living sites did not develop in civilizing ways comparable to the farmers. Agriculture probably required a far greater discipline than did any form of food collecting. Seeds had to be planted at certain seasons, some protection had to be given to the growing plants and animals, harvests had to be reaped. stored, and divided. Thus we might argue that it was neither leisure time nor a sedentary existence that produced great changes in human culture. The cause was rather the more rigorous demands associated with an agricultural way of life. Humanity was changing plants and animals to suit its needs, and living in close relation with plants and animals was changing humans way of life. (9 signal words)
Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) was an amazing author who wrote an astounding amount of material on an even more astounding variety of subjects. His literary studies included line-by-line analyses of all of the play of Shakespeare; his historical research included works on the history of Greece, the Roman Empire, England, and France; he also wrote well-researched tomes on physics, chemistry, and astronomy. What he is most likely best known for today, however, is science fiction: his Foundation series on a galactic empire inspired by Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and the / Robot series about a future society where humans and robots coexist. In total, Asimov wrote more than 500 books on this wide variety of subjects.
TOPIC OF READING PASSAGE: author Isaac Asimov
Main points about Asimov：
* wrote a huge amount of material (more than 500 books);
*wrote on a wide variety of topics (literary analysis, history, physics, chemistry, astronomy, science fiction)
The Dead Sea
The Middle Eastern body of water called Bahr Lut in Arabic is known as the Dead Sea in English. This body of water is said to be "dead" not because it is the dried-out remnant to survive in it. The Dead Sea is a landlocked body of water with the Jordan River as its source and no outlet. Its high salt content, which results from the rapid evaporation due to the area s extremely high temperatures, makes it the saltiest body of water on Earth.
Polling is, of course, a survey of certain people to find out how they feel about an issue or about a candidate for a government post in an election. Polling involves, simply, asking people how they feel about an issue or a person and them tallying the results. When it is not feasible to contact everyone involved to find out what each person thinks because there are, for example, too many people to contact each one individually, then a representative sample of people can be polled and the results of the representative sample can be attributed to the population as a whole.
◇ Listening Passage:
(Professor): Now I'm sure you're all wondering how Asimov managed to write so much. Well, the simple answer's that he did almost nothing except writing because that's what he was driven to do.
Asimov's normal routine was to spend time, a lot of time, writing every day. He usually got up at 6 o'clock in the morning; he was at work writing by 7:30 in the morning, and he wrote until 10 o'clock in the evening. That's a lot of time to spend writing. This desire to spend so much time writing prompted Asimov himself to say "Writing is my only interest. Even speaking is an interruption."
◇ TOPIC OF LISTENING PASSAGE:
how Asimov wrote so much
Main points about topic:
* Asimov wrote from 7: 30 in the morning to 10 o'clock in the evening.
* Asimov said,” Writing is my only interest."
*表達必須連貫一致，符合邏輯順序，適當使用Signal Words, 如下：.
The man's opinion is that...
The woman believes that...
According to the lecture...
The professor made the point that...
The reading states that...
例1：Reading FUNGI AND PLANT DISEASE0
Of all the organisms responsible for diseases in plants, fungi cause the most problems. Although a fungus is technically a small plant, it cannot make its own food and therefore survives by being a parasite-living off other plant hosts. A common fungus, southern blight, affects many vegetables, including tomatoes and potatoes. It appears as a fuzzy white growth on the plant's stem near soil level. When the plant is infected with the blight, it wilts and then dies. The fungus may spread to the soil, where it can survive for years.
Listening and Speaking
(Narrator) Now listen to part of a lecture in a botany class.
Of all the organisms responsible for diseases in plants, fungi cause the most problems. Although a fungus is technically a small plant, it cannot make its own food and therefore survives by being a parasite-living off other plant hosts. A common fungus, southern blight, affects many vegetables, including tomatoes and potatoes. It appears as a fuzzy white growth on the plant’s stem near soil level. When the plant is infected with the blight, it wilts and then dies. The fungus may spread to the soil, where it can survive for years. Because a fungus can survive for years in soil, the best way to control such a disease is to remove and destroy the infected plants, as well as six centimeters of soil around them. Avoid spreading disease by washing off your tools and your shoes when you go from an infected area to a healthy part of your garden. At the end of the gardening season, do a complete cleanup.
You can also keep disease away by rotating crops. Crop rotation can be effective in preventing soil-borne disease, especially when the disease is caused by a fungus that likes specific plants. For example, the fungus that causes southern blight is attracted to tomatoes. Once this fungus is present, it will thrive in the soil from year to year, attacking the tomato plants.
With crop rotation, you don't grow the same plant in the same place for at least three consecutive years. So, for example, if you grow tomatoes one year, the next year you shouldn't plant tomatoes in the same place. By planting something else the second and third years, any tomato-loving fungus that survived the winter wouldn't have any tomato plants to feed on. With three years between planting tomatoes, the fungus will die off from lack of a host plant.
Explain ways that a gardener can control plant disease caused by a fungus, and explain why these methods work.
(Preparation Time : 30 seconds Response Time: 60 seconds )
Here are two notes that two students took during the sample lecture. Add other words and phrases that you think are important to remember about the lecture.
fungus, soil, years
destroy plants, soil around
remove 6 cm soil
wash tools, shoes
specific, tomato blight
fungus cause disease
soil-year to year
don't plant same place
2 other plants
fungus die off
fungus die, lack host
Response by Student
A gardener can control plant disease caused by a fungus. One way is to destroy sick plants and also destroy the soil around plants. This method works because a fungus lives in the soil. Another way is to wash tools and shoes. This will avoid spreading the disease. Another way is to use crop rotation for a tomato blight. Don't plant tomatoes in the same place every year. This method works because the fungus will die off. The reason is there are no tomato plants to eat.
Response by Student 2
A fungus kills plants because it lives in the soil. You can control fungus by removing infected plants and six centimeters of the soil. Also, crop rotation can control plant disease caused by a fungus. The fungus lives in soil year to year, so crop rotation is three years. For example, plant tomatoes in the first year. In the second and third year, plant other plants. Crop rotation causes the fungus to die because it lacks a host plant.
例 2: Listening (Woman) Hi, Brett.
(Man) Hi, Karen.
(Woman) You don't look too happy, Brett. Is anything the matter?
(Man) You can tell I' m upset just by looking at me?
(Woman) Yeah, it's pretty obvious. You want to tell me what's bothering you?
(Man) Well, it's that I m having trouble in my economics class, and I just talked to the professor. She didn't seem too sympathetic.
(Woman) She didn't ? What's the problem?
(Man) Well, it's that I'm on the baseball team.
(Woman) I know. I've seen you play. But what does that have to do with your economics class?
(Man) It's the away games. That's the problem. The away games are all on the weekend, but usually when we’re traveling to another school for a weekend game, we leave on Friday. The team bus usually leaves about noon on Friday.
(Woman) And that has something to do with your economics class?
(Man) Yeah, my economics class meets on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, in the afternoon!
(Woman) I see. So you miss your economics class once in a while on Friday afternoons?
(Man) Not just once in a while. It's been every Friday for the last four weeks.
(Woman) And you talked to your economics professor about this?
(Man) Yes, I did. And I told her why I missed class on Fridays.
(Woman) But she wasn't very sympathetic you said.
(Man) She wasn't sympathetic at all.
(Woman) I think that's because you've missed so many classes... Listen, have you thought about switching to a different section of the class? I think there's another section of the same class on Tuesdays and Thursdays.
(Man) I hadn't thought about that. Maybe that would be something to consider, since my professor's not at all happy that I miss class so much.
TOPIC OF LISTENING PASSAGE:
problem man is having with economics class"
Main points about problem:
* Man is missing economics class on Fridays because he is on the baseball team.
* Woman suggests changing to a different section of economics class that does not meet on Fridays.
How does the woman react to the man's problem?
In this listening passage, two students discuss a problem the man has with his economics class. First, the man explains that he has the problem that he is missing his economics class on Fridays because he is on the baseball team and he travels to away games on Fridays. Then after the woman understands this problem, she suggests that he change to a different section of economics class, one that does not meet on Fridays.
口譯專家羅贊(Rozan)曾經明確地指出筆記的原則是記錄源語所表達出的意思，而不是僅僅把源語中的單詞羅列在紙上(Note ideas, not words!)。那麼，怎樣來記大意呢?
“You didn’t know? An anonymous donor is paying the bill for most of the sculpture.”
我們聽到這句話後需要記錄的內容為“An anonymous donor pay the bill (sculpture)”，甚至這裡的bill 都可以用符號表示，其實就是金錢唄，可以用￥$等等來表示。
如 TPO2 第五題中， 女學生和教授在討論他們的出行計畫和另一位教授的布展計畫時，分別談到了出行所需時 間“a 3 day trip”、布展時間“spend next week”、出行日期等資訊“we don’t leave until Wednesday”。這些都是重要的資訊，需要記錄下來。
① Uni.; Dep.
② BTW; ASAP; PS
③ BJ; SH
② 順帶一提(by the way);儘快(as soon as possible)，附言(postscript)
這些就是縮略書寫最為常見和廣泛應用的例子，被稱為縮略(abbreviation)。在遇到一個超過 5 個字母的單詞時，我們用這個單詞中的某幾個字元(一般不超過 4 個)來代 替這個單詞，就是我們要強調縮略的概念。
經過縮略，上面 TPO例子中的筆記可以為： ano. donor pay scul.。
programme → prog.
assignment → asg.
including → inc.
excluding → exc.
reason → R.
possible → psb
problem → prob.
solution → Sl.
conception → conc.
definition → def.
science → sci.
computer → pc
schedule → schd
conflict → conf. 等。
印象最深刻的時刻 ？ 第一次看哈利波特
最喜歡的room？ 臥室 因為我經常在臥室看哈利波特
喜歡大城市 小城市？ 大城市 可以看哈利波特
喜歡一個人住還是和室友？ 和室友 可以一起看哈利波特
喜歡寫信還是email？email 可以互相分享各種attachment 比如哈利波特
基本能覆蓋 80% 其他的大家可以分類看下
喜歡在家辦公還是在辦公室，在家 因為我是哈利迷 我家裝修得和哈利波特一樣
家人朋友給我的意見， 朋友介紹我看哈利波特 英語變得叼炸天
你喜歡單獨學習還是group study， group study 因為哈利波特裡面那三個人是一個group 他們最終戰勝大boss
若果有一大筆錢。 我會去visit 哈利波特的拍攝地
Practice wherever you can and whenever you can。 Any practice is good，whether you speak to someone who is a native English speaker or not。
It’s important to build your confidence. If possible， use simple English sentence structure that you know is correct， so that you can concentrate ongetting your message across。
Try to experiment with the English you know。 Use words and phrases you knowing new situations。 Native English speakers are more likely to correct you if you use the wrong word than if you use the wrong grammar。 Experimenting with vocabulary is a really good way of getting feedback。
Try to respond to what people say to you。 You can often get clues to what people think by looking at their body language。 Respond to them in a natural way。
Try not to translate from or into your own language。 This takes too much time and will make you more hesitant。
If you forget a word， do what native English speakers do all the time， and say things that “fill” the conversation。 This is better than being completely silent。 Try using um or er，if you forget the word。
Don’t speak too fast。 It’s important tousle a natural rhythm when speaking English。 But if you speak too fast， it will be difficult for people to understand you。
Try to relax when you speak。 When you speak English at a normal speed， you will discover that most of the pronunciation skills， such as linking between words， will happen automatically。
Don’t be shy to speak！ The more you practice， the more confident you will become。
☆ 托福口說辭彙 多練是硬道理！
辭彙量的缺乏肯定會導致你語言表述不出來或是不準確，再或者較為簡單單調。語法掌 握不好會引起病句或根本無法連詞成句的情況。所以我們在平時要想提高英語，尤其是想要提高托福考試的應試能力，不管對於托福考試的哪一個單項，辭彙+語法 都是最基本的，也是最重要的。
所以在背口說單詞時，可以不用先急著追求量，一天就背 20個單詞。但是這20個單詞，一定要記住它的發音、詞性、搭配、用法等，去看看例句結合著一定的語境記憶。等到你能夠真正看著中文能夠用它造一句話這個 單詞才叫做會背了。是不是挺麻煩呢？但是沒辦法，如果你一直只看英文記中文你永遠也不會把這個單詞用上去。