目前分類:托福TPO分享 (16)

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 未命名1  

描述

 

「託福考滿分」是我們為託福考生量身定做的託福備考工具,包含聽說讀寫等功能以及市面上最主要的託福備考資料,是託福考生備考的必備工具之一。

1. 逐句精聽——唯有精細,方能優秀
根據考滿分名師的經驗,只有認真地對每個句子進行精聽、吃透句子,方能從根本上提高託福聽力水準。因此我們對所有聽力材料以句為單位進行精確的切分,練習時可以一句一句反復地聽,直到吃透為止。

2. 每日公開課——每天進步一點點
分享託福備考乾貨,考滿分名師為你指點迷津,每天早上、下午、晚上,考滿分名師與大家進行公開課直播,讓你每天進步一點點。

3. 隨機練習——模仿考試出題的練習方式
除了按規律地刷TPO、老托題等,考滿分還為你準備了「隨機練習」的備考形式,模考真實考試的出題形式,更好地幫你瞭解自己的備考進度以及不足。

4. 專業課程——託福備考 All in One
All in One 全程班,把所有託福備考培訓提煉壓縮成一個課程,同時提供地球上最豐富的免費備考資源,讓你花最少的錢,得到最優質的服務。

5. 聽說讀寫——樣樣俱全,隨時隨地輕鬆學

為你提供聽說讀寫等全面的練習功能,使用手機即能備考,告別無法離開電腦的備考時代。做題資料還能與網站進行同步,讓你隨時隨地輕鬆備考。

6. 考滿分專欄——讓我們更加瞭解彼此
不瞭解考滿分?不瞭解考滿分的老師?不知道怎麼向我們回饋?是時候讓你、讓考滿分的教師發聲了!在考滿分專欄,讓你我輕鬆發聲,讓我們更瞭解彼此。

除了「託福考滿分」,我們的託福備考網站 (http://toefl.kaomanfen.com ),裡面包含了託福備考中聽說讀寫的所有備考資料與工具,歡迎訪問使用。

同時,你的想法、你的回饋,歡迎隨時與考滿分聯繫,感謝。
微信公眾號:考滿分
新浪微博:@考滿分網
考滿分託福使用回饋群:146060530

考滿分
Keep Moving Forward

 

託福考滿分 - TPO聽力精聽精研,每日託福公開課,讓備考更簡單支援

 ipone apps  

3.0.3 版本的新內容

 

- 修復了播放速率混亂的錯誤
- 修復了可能出現的多篇材料同時播放的錯誤
- 修復了單句播放時的迴圈狀態

 

 

 

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什麼是托福TPO

 

TPO是首字母縮略詞,全稱是TOEFL Practice Online,中文意思是托福在線模考

TPO是為参加下一代托福考TOEFL iBT(Internet-based test),即網考托福考試的人,以及想要提高專業英語水平的學員提供的一個全真模擬托福網考考試平台。TPO都是ETS之前考過的真題,對於考生考前模擬和複習具有很大的價值。TPO的功能是模擬考試,考生可以在考前用它来了解真實題型,熟悉考試環境和操作,檢驗自己的真實水平。

 TPO的功能是什麼

TPO的功能是模擬考试,考生可以在考前用它來了解真實題型,熟悉考試還境和操作,檢驗自己的真實水平。

 TPO怎麼操作

在家中電腦上依靠互聯網按提示操作獨立完成TPO。

 TPO有幾套题

 答:33套(還在持續更新)。ETS會不定期的通過各種途徑解密一些TPO,不過這些題都不再考了。

 什麼時間進行TPO比較好

 建議考前一個月,每兩天做一套。

 

 TPO能為我們帶來甚麼?

1.测試的手段:


其實在我們開始準備新托福考試的時候,不妨先做一套新托福突破TPO来測試一下自己現階段的水平。很多考友當剛剛接觸新托福考試的時候,第一個感覺就是感覺到自己的英語不好,以及對於自己的英語很弱感覺到深感痛绝,但是有感覺到自己無從下手,一開始也就僅僅能想到背單詞,但是對於自己接下來到底需要做什麼感覺到一籌莫展,實際上,新托福突破TPO就是我們最好的導師,因為這個考試十分的強大,我們完全可以把它當做一個世界上最精確的衡量我們英語水平的尺子,要想知道我們接下來該做什麼,很簡單,只要用新托福突破TPO這把尺子來量一下自己在聽說讀寫不同側面的長短,其實也就能知道自己到底该加強什麼。

 

2.查缺補漏的手段:

當我們準備一段時間的托福考試之後,明顯就應該感覺到自己本身的提升,但是還是時會感覺到自己總還是有些漏洞的。其實這個時候,又是該新托福突破TPO出動的時候了,通過做幾套新托福突破TPO,然後横向比較自己經常容易出錯的題型,其實就可以發現自己到底在哪些單項上還做得不夠,接下来就應該在這些單項上進行發力。

 

3.熟悉托福考試的手段:

托福考試雖然現在已經完全是一個能力水平測試,這個考試的核心就是快速準確。準確這個是可以訓練的,但是快速這一點,在最開始的時候,往往讓眾多考友猝不及防,因此如果是高手上陣,準備秒殺托福考試的,最好還是要在考前的1-2周,就大量的做新托福突破TPO,之所以這樣做是要通過這種方式來提升自己對於托福考试的適應程度,以防在考試的時候,面對突如其来的海量試題缺乏適應的能力。

 

4.模考的手段:

對於很多學習方法很好的考友來說,其實新托福突破TPO只是一個輔助的手段,因為單纯的做題並不能提升我们的托福分數,因此很多考友在準備托福考試的時候,都是在用最適合自己的方法在提升自己的實力,只有這樣才能真正的提升自己的托福成績,但是我們需要注意的是,由於我們平時有可能都是在單纯的要麼背单词,要麼練聽寫。這雖然是提升實力的捷徑,但是我們還需要有一個舞台将自己的實力展示出來,這個展示的舞台就是托福考試。不過,任何真正的自信,其實都是成功換來的,那麼要提升自己的做題狀態,要给自己充分自信的方法,顯然就是模考,因為只有模考,才能夠讓自己真正的進入到做題的狀態,讓自己在考前就充滿自信,繼而發揮出自己全部的實力,這就是模考的作用。

 

5.分析的手段:

很多考友總是喜歡題海戰數,認為自己把所有的題都做完了,自然自己的托福成績就無敵於天下,其實這是對於英語考試的誤解。想要提升自己的英語成績,只有踏踏實實提高實力才行。不過如果你特别喜歡做新托福突破TPO的話,那麼就請將這些題做得非常的细緻,所謂的细緻,就是要將裡面的每個單詞全都背下來,每一道題,每一個選項全都弄清楚為甚麼對,以及為甚麼錯。如果是聽力的話,那麼就要保證每一個單詞,當再聽到的時候,可以馬上識别出來,只有這樣做題才是有意義的。否則像很多考友一樣,做完題之後,馬上就把這些題扔在一邊,其實是最錯誤的做法。單纯做題,而不分析題的做題方式,完全是在浪費自己的時間!

 

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作者: KGHSbear (可樂熊) 看板: TOEFL_iBT

標題: [心得] TOEFL Practice Online使用心得

時間: Mon Mar 23 21:55:58 2009

 

TPO=TOEFL Practice Online

是ETS官方出版的模擬考

考完會有成績

官方人員改的(有詐)

我買的是五千多塊的四套模擬考

每套考試都有一個授權碼

考完可以review

可以看/聽題目和自己錯的地方(不能聽自己的speaking answers)

有正確答案但沒有answer explanation

 

我沒考過真正的托福

今天第一次試了這個模擬考

裡面沒有加試題

口說第一二題和獨立寫作是很"規矩"的題目

speaking問最重要的一本書和TV是不是對社會有正面影響

寫作問sports and social activities是不是和classes and libraries一樣重要

並且需要financial support

 

考試有兩種模式

可以選計時不計時

我選了計時 但是做閱讀和寫作的時候

即使時間到了 它會問我要return or continue

continue會進入下一大題(或下個section)

return可以讓你繼續寫題目寫到你開心為止(右上方計時器會消失)

口說的部分最令人傻眼了

可以聽自己的response 還可以反覆重錄再送出答案

還有啊 隨時都可以停止這個考試

等你想繼續考再考(但是我不確定時間可以間隔多久)

不過如果想模擬真實考試 還是照正常方式進行比較好

 

考完後系統會問你幾個問題 有點像是問卷調查

過程在三到四分鐘即可完成

然後你各個section馬上就有成績顯示

前面說有詐是因為speaking不是人評分的 是機器改的

(我覺得講的不錯可是只有22分)

評分的system會評文法, 流暢度等

(最後顯示成績的頁面上有說明)

 

當下我看到成績那麼快就出來

還蠻錯愕的

我辛苦讀那麼久托福 他們卻用極少的時間改我的答案和決定我的生死

TPO是這樣 不過我猜真實考試其實也差不多

另外我覺得speaking不應該用機器改啊

以後講英文是講給人聽的又不是評分系統

還好真實考試是人改的

 

總而言之 我認為模擬考還是很有幫助的

畢竟它應該可以讓你練習到最接近真題的題目

對我來說 它讓我知道我哪個section需要加強

還有啊 我想如果集中在考試前幾天連續做模考的話

真實考試的時候就比較不會緊張(因為有熟悉感)

就好像每天吃晚飯一樣的平常(好啦四個小時的一頓晚餐...)

 

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推 fliegen:哇賽!大開眼界  謝謝你的分享                            03/23 22:27

推 enia:我想請問一下 口說要怎麼用電腦改啊?                        03/24 00:21

推 XBox:我也覺得機器評的比較低                                     03/24 01:39

→ XBox:不過我是買一套990or900, 有點忘了, 但是沒有超過1000         03/24 01:40

→ KGHSbear:口說的部份錄音時, 時間一到或當你主動按下【停止錄音】   03/24 08:48

→ KGHSbear:系統會跳入下個畫面, 畫面中有【播放錄音】【重錄】       03/24 08:50

→ KGHSbear:以及【確認答案】(把答案送出, 不再重錄)               03/24 08:52

→ KGHSbear:按【重錄】會跳回錄音時的頁面, 但不會再給你作答前的準   03/24 08:54

→ KGHSbear:備時間, 我覺得這種功能的好處就是確定自己的麥克風是否   03/24 08:55

→ KGHSbear:運作正常, 不過我都沒聽自己的答案(因為會起雞皮疙瘩)   03/24 08:57

→ KGHSbear:另外 我是在高雄寰宇買的模考 我猜他們有賣貴             03/24 08:58

→ KGHSbear:By the way之前忘記寫一件很重要的事, 就是考試的時候最   03/24 09:00

→ KGHSbear:好把手機關機(我連傳真機都關了)可是我忘了拔電話線     03/24 09:02

→ KGHSbear:結果做聽力的時候電話一直響 害我分心                    03/24 09:03

推 SSR:您的TPO真的買貴了.高雄戴爾一套TPO是1200,寰宇1500            03/24 09:53

推 enia:給原PO:我的意思不是怎麼更改答案啦  XD                     03/24 10:13

→ enia:我是好奇  口說要怎麼用機器評分啊                           03/24 10:14

 

 

 

 作者  cosmosalbert (Albert)                                  看板  TOEFL_iBT

 標題  [分享]喔....這就是 tpo                                                 

 時間  Tue Mar 24 17:07:12 2009                                              

───────────────────────────────────────

 

tpo(toefl practice online)是tpo的全名

是由舉辦托福的機構(ets)所推出的全真模擬試題

我本身也考過托福在去年12考的(95分)

那時候還沒有tpo(或是我本身沒發現有吧)

最近因為本身還想再考一次所以買了個tpo來做

說實在話 跟真正的托福是還蠻像的

但是一定要選擇計時模式(另一種模式是隨時想考就考)

其實我沒有辦法知道題目是不是真的一模一樣

但是我覺得題型真的很像

市面上目前有的參考書我做過知英和barrron's

知英的cd軟體跟真正考試很像

至於barron's........

我覺得或許很多人覺得tpo是假的

但是我覺得先不論評分方式

他的題型和模版就很有參考價值

也能讓沒考過的同學更加熟習托福考試

所以我覺得是不錯的

 

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section1托福獨立口語答案

  Task 1:

  解題思路:

  Research paper

  1)do a lot of reading, enlarge knowledge pool

  2)get professional references, good for academic accomplishment

  class presentation:

  1)cultivate the ability to be presentablegood for career development

  2)open to feedback from the whole classquickly correct mistake and absorb suggestions

  group project:

  1)easier to reach good result through group brainstorming

  2)make friends with similar characteristics and interests
參考答案:
  I think class presentation is a very beneficial way of doing academic assignment because of two reasons. First, doing class presentation can cultivate confidence and make students more communicative. This is something very important for ones future career development. I know most successful people throughout history have the above characteristics. Second, when you do presentation, you are open to feedbacks from the whole class, and then you can quickly correct mistakes and adopt suggestions. This is typically useful to students who are not communicative to others and have no idea of the problems they are probably encountering.
 

  Task 2:
    
參考答案:

  I agree that advertisement for candy and junk food should be forbidden on television for two considerations. The first one is that advertisements often exaggerate the good taste and the so called healthiness to attract children but ignore the negative effects. Some candies are tagged containing vitamin but never mentioned the amount of sugar they actually put in. Also, children generally dont avoid watching TV but they have not enough cognition of what is bad. Whenever there are such advertisements on TV, they see one, they want to buy the product. No wonder so many children have decayed teeth at such a young age.

section2托福綜合口語答案
  Task 3:

    參考答案:

  Someone is proposing in the letter to keep music building open till midnight. The woman totally supports it because firstly, as student musicians, they usually like to practice in the evening but they have nowhere else but to practice in the dorm. Even they keep the volume down, it still disturb other students. Secondly, she mentions that they can use more time slot. If they get more time slot to reserve the building, they can have more chances to practice because before big concerts everyone from all sections of the orchestra will reserve the building to practice.

  Task 4:

   參考答案:
  The man was going to interview the student director for his article for campus newspaper, but the student got a bad cold and wouldnt do the interview right now. The first solution is to wait until the student gets better but then the article wouldnt be done in time on this weeks paper, and the play is open this weekend. The second solution is to interview an actor instead. But the actor wouldnt know as much as the director does. I would recommend the man to take the second solution because if he waits for the director, the article will only be on next weeks paper but the article is better to be seen before the opening of the play.
 

  Task 5:

 參考答案:

  In this lecture the professor talks about the refute-and-persuade advertisement technique, which means the company indicate the awareness of the disadvantage of the product first, and then refute the drawback by demonstrating the advantages of buying it. The example is the advertisement of a well-known companys pots and pans, the woman in the ads. first says that its a lot more expensive than most other pots and pans in the store, and then says the extra cost is worthwhile because the company provide lifetime guarantee which means they provide free replacement if anything goes wrong. And most other companies cant give such guarantee to their products.
 

  Task 6:

 參考答案:

  In this lecture, the professor talks about how lakes can disappear. He describes two ways lakes can disappear, one is through natural processes, and the other is through human activities. The example of natural processes is lakes that have lots of plants growing in them. With time, the plants grow and die and fall to the bottom, and finally filled up the lake, left no room for water, and then the lake disappears. The demonstration of human activities cause is that famers use lake water to irrigate crops. When there is not enough rain water or stream water to refill the lake to replace the lost water, the lake will finally dry up.
   

 (來源:環球教育)

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第一段:

 

Evidence suggests that an important stimulus behind the rise of early civilizations was the development of settled agriculture, which unleashed a series of changes in the organization of human communities that culminated in the rise of large ancient empires.

 

第二段:

The exact time and place that crops were first cultivated successfully is uncertain. Many prehistorians believe that farming may have emerged in dependently in several different areas of the world when small communities, driven by increasing population and a decline in available food resources, began to plant seeds in the ground in an effort to guarantee their survival. The first farmers, who may have lived as long as 10,000 years ago, undoubtedly used simple techniques and still relied primarily on other forms of food production, such as hunting, foraging, or pastoralism. The real breakthrough took place when farmers began to cultivate crops along the floodplains of river systems. The advantage was that crops grown in such areas were not as dependent on rainfall and therefore produced a more reliable harvest. An additional benefit was that the sediment carried by the river waters deposited nutrients in the soil, thus enabling the farmer to cultivate a single plot of ground for many years without moving to a new location. Thus, the first truly sedentary (that is, nonmigratory) societies were born. As time went on, such communities gradually learned how to direct the flow of water to enhance the productive capacity of the land, while the introduction of the iron plow eventually led to the cultivation of heavy soils not previously susceptible to agriculture.

 第三段:

The spread of this river valley agriculture in various parts of Asia and Africa was the decisive factor in the rise of the first civilizations. The increase in food production in these regions led to a significant growth in population, while efforts to control the flow of water to maximize the irrigation of cultivated areas and to protect the local inhabitants from hostile forces outside the community provoked the first steps toward cooperative activities on a large scale. The need to oversee the entire process brought about the emergence of an elite that was eventually transformed into a government.

 第四段:

The first clear steps in the rise of the first civilizations took place in the fourth and third millennia B.C. in Mesopotamia, northern Africa, India, and China. How the first governments took shape in these areas is not certain, but anthropologists studying the evolution of human communities in various parts of the world have discovered that one common stage in the process is the emergence of what are called “big men” within a single village or a collection of villages. By means of their military prowess, dominant personalities, or political talents, these people gradually emerge as the leaders of that community. In time, the “big men” become formal symbols of authority and pass on that authority to others within their own family. As the communities continue to grow in size and material wealth, the “big men” assume hereditary status, and their allies and family members are transformed into a hereditary monarchy.

 第五段:

The appearance of these sedentary societies had a major impact on the social organizations, religious beliefs, and way of life of the peoples living within their boundaries.■With the increase in population and the development of centralized authority came the emergence of the cities.■While some of these urban centers were identified with a particular economic function, such as proximity to gold or iron deposits or a strategic location on a major trade route, others served primarily as administrative centers or the site of temples for the official cult or other ritual observances.■Within these cities, new forms of livelihood appeared to satisfy the growing need for social services and consumer goods.■Some people became artisans or merchants, while others became warriors, scholars, or priests. In some cases, the physical division within the first cities reflected the strict hierarchical character of the society as a whole, with a royal palace surrounded by an imposing wall and separate from the remainder of the urban population. In other instances, such as the Indus River Valley, the cities lacked a royal precinct and the ostentatious palaces that marked their contemporaries elsewhere.

 (來源:John_ny的博客)

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Q1
正確答案:D。在高亮部分的描寫之後,本段的最後一句出現了,therefore。這裡也是在說the pressure of the overlying rock導致的結果,也就是文章提到它的目的。其結果是,大部分的水儲都在比較表面的地方。所以其目的就是要解釋為什麼水都在表面的地方。因此選D
 
Q2 

正確答案:C。對應原文第二句話,也就是將地下水和江河湖泊水進行比較的那句話。原句說more than 50 times。就證明是地下水的水量大。這裡A是飲用性,原文並沒有說江水不能喝。B是有用,同理。D是代價。這個就更沒提到了。所以答案為C豐富。


Q3 
正確答案:Cextract本身是汲取,取出的意思。從原文後面一句話可以推測,因為後面說儲水土層可以看作是對一筆水存款,所以前面應該是說可以取出。另外這個詞的詞綴ex-本身就有出的意思。那麼A是使用,B是潑出,C是移動,D是隔離在外。因此選C
 
Q4
term
作名詞是術語,這個很常用。而這裡用了其動詞否定形式,那麼應該是被術語為,也就是被命名為。那麼A是認為,B是叫做,C是限制於,D是由於。所以應該選B
 
Q5 

正確答案:B
A
決定於permeability of rack,對應本段最後一句。B正確,對應本段第七句(porosity is important for water-storage capacity),這句話只要根據porosity定位就很好找。Cporosity沒有直接關係。D原文就沒提到。
 

 正確答案:B
compact
是壓縮,緊密的意思。通過後面的and的並列內容可以推出其詞義,因為and後面說rarely contain space,那就是說中間的空間很小。所以選擇B壓縮的。A是堅硬,C是重的,D是深埋的。

Q7
正確答案:A
對應本段文章最後一句“even igneous rocks may act as groundwater…”後半句給出的就是答案,那麼它說的是要有fractures並且要interconnected。所以選A
 
Q8 

正確答案:B
對應本段第一句和第二句,即sortingcompaction會共同影響permeability,結合上一段的最後一句理解,多孔性分為兩種情況,一種是孔多但是互相不聯通,這時permeability不高;另一種是孔多並且互相聯通,那麼porosity高的同時permeability也會高。因此選擇B。其他幾個選項的敘述都不完整。這兩者的關係並不是簡單的正比例。
 
Q9 
正確答案:D
Coating
本來是外衣,和塗層的意思。那麼A是溪流,B是障礙物,C是數量,D是層。所以D符合。
 
Q10 
正確答案:C
根據plant roots定位到本段最後一句。說vadose zone給植物根部提供了水。選項ABD都沒提到。而只有C沒有錯誤,因為plant roots是從vadose zone汲取的水份,而不是water table。所以選C

 1234    


Q11
正確答案:D
A選項缺少了spring這個條件;BC選項不正確。D包含了原文所有的主幹部分,正確。
 
Q12 
正確答案:A
根據這段最後兩句對於wet year的描寫可以得出根據降雨量不同,地下水位元是有變化的。所以A正確。B不正確,原文明顯寫到在arid regions降雨量多時乾燥的溪床會有水。C也不對,整段都有大篇幅在寫和land surfaceintersectsD原文沒提到。
 
 
Q13.
 
正確答案:C
要插入的句子說this is a consequence,那麼this一定指代什麼,根據後半句可以知道指代的內容應該與地下水位元不是平面有關。所以C的位置符合,因為前面一句說地下水位不是平面。
 
 
Q14 

正確答案:BCF

錯誤,對應文章第三段的第三句有關於sedimentary rock的描寫。根據原文,sedimentary rock是很好的aquifers

正確,對應第二段的前四句。

正確,對應原文第二段。

錯誤,vadose zone中會留下thin coating所以還是會濕潤。對應原文第四段。

錯誤,water table本非remain at a constant level,根據倒數第二句,地下水位有時會和地表交叉的。

正確,選。對應原文最後一段。

  (來源:環球教育)

 

 

 

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Q1 
正確答案:B
對應原文第二句。A原文並没有對amphoraepottery的比較。C原文提到了快速轉輪和燒窯的使用,但並沒說因此陶器質量就下降了。D提到了陶器在Mediterranean的廣泛使用,但是沒有種類間的比較。
 
Q2

正確答案:C
對應紅色標記部分。只有C和原文的描寫衝突。


Q3 

正確答案:D
四個選項分别對應紅色標記部分。D選項對應的最後一句和原文矛盾,原文說一眼看上去這個pot是非常現代化的。但實際很古老了。因此its true age並不明顯。D錯誤



Q4 

正確答案:A
這一段的主題就是第一句,強調了massive quantity。因此後面提到work of archaelogists也是為了支持這個主題。因此選A

 

Q5
正確答案:C
Substantial
是大量的,實質的等意。A是保護的;B是人工的;D是著名的。只有C是大的。所以選擇C。而且這裡也描述了50 meters high也是描述了它的大小。所以應選擇與大小有關的。


Q6 
正確答案:C
這裡介紹Monte Testaccil是在支持本段的論點。回到原文這段的第一句可以看到原文說很難通過broken pot來確定那個時期的pot產量,而Monte Testaccil確實個例外。所以也就是說可以通過這個dump遺址得到當時的quantities。選C
 

Q7
正確答案:B
Entirely
是完全的,整個的。A是明顯的,B是完全的,C是基本的,D是大部分的。這裡B最符合。


Q8 
正確答案:D
根據tiber river定位,看到後面的描述說around 6000 million liters of oil were imported into city form oversea。那麼也就是說當時的進出口貿易非常繁華。對應答案D
 

Q9 .

正確答案:C
根據原文discarded定位到原文最後一句。往前找描述。紅色的部分說。如同現代工業社會一樣,大量生產和需求,但是背後的生產力並不能滿足之類的。所以在運送的时候也是如此。有時大量運送就難免會有打碎的。因此選擇CA原文沒提到;B原文也沒說,而且前文一直在說pot都是high quality的。D這裡也沒說到oilpottery的關係。


Q10 
正確答案:B
這裡說Map只是tell part of the story,那麼證明能得到roman pottery的不僅是map描畫的範圍,應該會有更大的範圍;從而來支持這一段的中心句,over substantial distancesA選項錯誤styles是從羅馬來的。CD跟原文也没關係。而B符合,說maps在一定程度上說明了羅馬陶器的地理散播,但並不是所有能得到陶器的人。

Q11 
正確答案:D
Humble謙虛
的,簡陋的。也可以通過and的並列形式推斷詞義,後面是isolated,與世隔絕的,那麼也可以引申為,偏遠的,落後的。所以humble應該是相近的意思。此處A是干擾項,鄉村的,田園的。但是少了簡陋那層意思。用D最合適。


Q12 
Q13 
正確答案:A
Particular
特别的,特指的。A是特别的,符合原文意思。這裡也說得是什麼的類型。可以依照上文推斷。B是常見的,C是原始的,D是先進的。


Q14 

正確答案:B
這裡要插入的句子中出現了that is because,那麼that肯定是指代了前文的某個現象,然後用要插入的這句畫進行解釋。句子第一句說,很少有遺址可以表明這種陶器的產量,第二局說但是有一個例外。那麼應該是先解釋原因,再說例外的情况。That指代的就是第一句話描述的現象。因此插入第二個空。

正确答案:ABE

正確,對應文章第一段和第二段,第一段重點說high quality,第二段說不僅是審美考慮也是practical的。

不選,原文沒提到。

正確,對應文章第四段。說很少有遺址可以體現其大量的生產,但是種種證據表明了其large quantities

對應原文第四段,但原文並沒說要concentrate on urban sites,也沒說選項中提到的原因。

正確,對於原文最後一段。

不選,原文沒提到。

(來源:環球教育)

 

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Section 1
Conversation 1
1、(0.26-0.48Professor:So let’s get started. Your paper on John Dewey’s political philosophy has a few issues I like to cover. You get great biographical sketches in the beginning. OK, but then you get to his political philosophy. I don’t think you have done enough to situate his philosophy within the time period. In other words, you haven’t connected his philosophy to the thinking of other intellectuals of the time.
教授說學生的paper並沒有很好的將J.D的政治哲學與同時代其他知識份子的哲學所聯繫起來,也就是paperorganization有問題
 
2(0.12-0.22)Student: I’m so sorry I’m late Professor Mills. I have just been to students’ medical center. I pushed my ankle playing soccer this morning. It takes longer than I expected to see the doctor.
同義轉換
 
 
3(0.48-0.56)Student: So I haven’t catch the most critical influences, the influences that were most significant to his political thinking?
Professor: Exactly.
 
(1.30-1.50)Professor: Yes, revised.Let me ask, when you finished writing, did you go back and ask yourself if all the material was relevant?
Student: Well. no.
Professor: I do think there are areas that can be cut. I guess what I am saying is your paragraphs are really presenting in logical order. The direction of your argument is not crystal-clear, and there is some unnecessary material getting in the way.
 
(2.13-2.30Professor: It looks like you get have mixed up with another reference system.
Student: Oh, yeah. I used something different in high school. It’s so confusing when switching to a new system.
I know. But remember, everything needs to be consistent when comes to referencing. It’s a very important academic convention.
教授認為學生的paper沒有描述對Dewey政治思考最重要的影響,應該添加,對應A選項。
教授認為paperreference不夠consistent,來自於不同的systems,對應D選項
paper中有不必要的材料,應該被cut,對應C選項
 
 
 4(2.32-2.47) Professor: Oh, also, I want to ask you, will you be in the political science club meeting Saturday?
Student: Definitely, the topic is John Dewey.
Professor: Yes. Are you interested in meeting part of the discussion? Tom is looking someone to help out. I think you have a lot to contribute.
Student: That will be fun. I’ ll give them a call.
教授問對討論會感興趣嗎,對應C選項
 
 
 5重聽部分:Let me ask, when you finished writing, did you go back and ask yourself if all the material was relevant?
教授問學生在完成寫作後有沒有回去重新看看材料是否都有關聯,即review his own work
 
 
 
Lecture 1

1lecture一直在講foundationalismLockeDescartes,對應的也就是two philosophersfoundation knowledge claims
 
 
2、(0.44-1.08 Take knowledge as a house, you need a solid foundation on which you build your house. And if you have a strong foundation, your house is more likely to be solid. Well, foundationalists think the same thing is true of knowledge. If you have a solid base for your knowledge claims, then your knowledge structure is more likely to be strong. Well, true.
professorfoundationalists認為如果有solid base for knowledge,那麼structure(對應選項中的organization of human knowledge)也會更strong,與修建房子同理,對應A選項
 
 
3(1.34-2.01)Professor: Locke’ viewpoint essentially is when humans were born, their minds were like blank slakes. That is, we don’t have any kind of knowledge when we were born. We get our knowledge from our senses, you know, taste, touch, smile, sight hearing. So when we look at the world, first is the baby’s, then as we grow, that’s where our knowledge comes from. Our senses, our experiences serve as the foundation for our knowledge.
foundation對應題幹中的basic type of knowledgeLocke認為這些基礎知識來自於人對外界的感知,也就是senses
 
 
 4(2.14-2.28)Professor: Descartes thought you must go to much deeper to find foundations. He believed our senses are not to be trusted. So he wanted to find a more solid foundation for knowledge. He began with what comes to be called methodological doubt.
Descartes認為需要go much deeper(對應discover to find foundations (對應foundational knowledge claims),對應了選項A
 
 
 5 (3.02-3.11)Professor: So unlike John Locke, Descartes doubt that knowledge comes from senses. He points out that at some time or another everyone is deceived by its senses.
(4.25-4.44)We could be dreaming. And there’s really no good way to prove we are not. So the common sense picture of reality that the world really is what it looks to us. Descartes shows it cannot just be as assumed as to be true beyond all doubt. He does it by talking about illusions. And also, by arguing that we could be dreaming.
lecture中教授提高笛卡爾認為人可能被experience或者sense deceived..也就是experience cannot be trusted,笛卡爾認為我們所感受到的reality也可能是我們在dreaming,不一定是真正的reality
 

6(4.54-5.12)Professor: To even think I doubt that I exist, you have to exist. And so what Descartes has done is to find at least one thing that he can be certain of he says I exist. And that’s the start. And other knowledge, he tells us, can be based on that foundation.
笛卡爾認為作為知識基礎的一定是他可以確信存在的,也就是a belief that cannot be false
 
 
托福TPO28聽力解析: Lecture 2

1 (0.17-0.22)Professor:Today we’re going to talk about particular cognitive ability some animal seem to have.
(1.50-) Now it has been assumed that primates and some other mammals stood alone at the top of higher cognitive evolution. But recently, birds, have been found possess some of the same cognitive abilities.
在開頭教授就講要討論某種動物有的認識能力,在開頭偏後又明確提出要討論鳥的能力,並且是何primates相類似的能力
 
2(2.55Professor: As I said, ,magpies are corvids, and because corvids have these other cognitive skills, researchers want to see if they were also capable of mirror-self recognition, so they give them a mirror mark test, placing a yellow sticker on the bird’s black throats. At first, the magpies only engage in the same social behaviors that other animals do, looking behind the mirror, but eventually some of the birds, while looking in the mirror, catch
 
 
3(2.24-2.44Professor: Well, corvids and some mammals have the ability to plan for the future, to store food, for instance, in places where they can find later. It’s been suggested that in fact the Jazz, corvids known for stealing each other’s food, may hide their food precisely because they are projecting their own tendencies to steal onto other jazz.
corvids藏東西主要由兩個原因,一是為未來作打算,藏在將來能發現的地方,二是project tendencies onto other corvids
 
44.00-4.15ProfessorBut two things are noteworthy here. One, no one has replicated this study. But more importantly, it misses the point, the issue is not whether some abilities can be learned, it’s whether a species can develop this ability spontaneously
教授認為這個study沒有意義因為沒有人可以重新實現實驗結果,而且實驗本身就是偏離問題主旨的。
 
 
 5(4.27-4.42) ProfessorBut more importantly, many researchers believe that MSR is indicative of other advanced cognitive abilities. Self-awareness, even in its earlier stages, might entail an awareness of others, the ability to see their perspective, to look the world from another point of view.
MSR展現了其他的能力,比如self-awareness,也就是look the world from others’ perspective
 
 
 6(5.09-5.20)ProfessorBut there is an area in birds’ brains that researchers believe govern similar cognitive functions. So primates and birds’ brains have evolved along different tracks, but ended up with similar abilities.
靈長類和鳥類動物的大腦從不同的方式進化而來,但是有一些相同的功能
 
 
 
 
Section 2
托福TPO28聽力解析:Conversation 1
1
(0.18-0.45)Student: So the first thing is you normally write during the first half of the academic year, right? In your final year study?
Professor: Right.
Student: But I have my students teaching schedule for that time. I want to teach high school English after graduation. So I really need to give that my full attention and I just worry that I won’t  be able to finish my senior thesis at the same time. I mean it’s supposed to be 35 to 50 pages. That’s a serious commitment.
學生說自己在final yearfirst half裡有teaching schedule
所以不能完成senior thesis,於此便是與professor討論何時完成最佳
 
 21.20-1.42Student: So I was hoping to do my senior thesis on Chaucer on the Canterbury Tales. Because that will be obviously useful if I do gone. But..
Professor: But Professor. Johnson...
Student: Exactly. Professor Johnson is going to be taking a bedical to do research in France during the second half of the year. So without him around, I’m not sure how I can do my senior thesis on Canterbury Tales.
Prof. Johnson下半年要去法國做研究,也就無法指導學生的senior thesis
 
 
 3同上文,Prof.Johnson 是學生關於Chaucer論文的導師,自然也是specialist on Chaucer
 

4、(1.20-1.27Student: So I was hoping to do my senior thesis on Chaucer on the Canterbury Tales. Because that will be obviously useful if I do gone.
1.27-2.00)Student: Well, you can try. Chaucer is the sort of my hero.
學生認為Chaucer方面的研究以後會非常有作用,而且Chaucer是他的hero,也就是he admires Chaucer
 
 
 5Professor: Well, if you do decide to build this route, I will make that decision soon. And I will use this summer productively.
教授說如果學生決定要選擇這個新的topic,那麼教授作為他的導師他在這個夏天會富有生產力的工作,那麼學生自然也需要做出很多準備很努力。
 
 
 Lecture 1

1(0.19-0.41)Professor: Today I want to talk about another way light affects plants. I’m sure you all know in physics class how light moves in microscopic ways, and we can only see light when the wavelength of that light is in specific range. Plus, depending on the wavelength, we can see different colors. Well, plants are also capable of distinguishing between different wavelengths of light.
教授今天講的是光是如何影響植物的,植物也具有區分不同波長光的能力,也就是植物是如何respond and sense光的刺激的
 

2(1.22-1.40Professor: Many plants are seasonal. And one way they know when winter is ending and spring is beginning is by sensing the change of light. The time when we don’t plant flower is based on the amount of light the plant senses. Certain plant species don’t flower if they sense too much light and some plants only flower when they senses specific amount of light.
有些植物不開花因為他們感知到太多光,有些植物只有在感受到特定量的光時才開花,也就是說開花與否是植物應對光照的一種方式
 

3(1.45-2.10Professor: Plants are also able to distinguish between specific wavelengths of light that human eye cannot even see. Specifically, there’s wavelength called far-red. Although why they called far-red? I mean it’s not really red at all, it lies in the in inner red range of the spectrum. We can’t see it, but plants can sense it as a different wavelength.
人眼是看不到far-red的,所以教授認為叫它far-red其實是有問題的
 
 
 4(2.28-2.36)Professor: Plants absorb most of the red light that hits them, but plants only absorb some of the far-red light that hits them, they reflect the rest.
植物把射入的紅光幾乎全部吸收,但只吸收部分紅外光,並反射了其他部分,所以吸收的紅光要多於紅外光。
 
 
 
 5(3.50-3.58)Professor: A ratio of less red light to more far-red light, would cause a reaction from the plant. It would stop growing taller.
紅光比例少於紅外怪,紅外光比紅光比例高時,植物會停止長高,也就是這樣的比例會使其生長減緩
 
 
 6(4.05-4.24)To testify this hypothesis, researchers took some electrical lights, actually, they would light emitting diodes, or LEDs. These light emitting diodes could stimulate red light.
同意轉換
 
 圖書  
托福TPO28聽力解析:Lecture 2

1、教授一上來說,考古學家dream 找到 ancient civilization,很多人覺得這是不可能發生的事情,但是確實發現了,接下來就說的發現的這個古文明並且證據如何證明他是古文明的。
 
 2A easier一般看見就排除了,C trade的定位點在後面,與site無關,明確排除, D desert是一開始的introduction部分說到的,不在教授講解的這個例子裡邊,選擇
於是跑回去重聽,聽了半天說的是這個地方曾經有house temple但是後來都沒有了,之後人們又新建了很多東西,所以只能有 layers  size of the city 是關於當時的資訊
 
 3教授說道GD的時候說了一句amazing,說明教授此文化為非常正面的態度。後邊說道找到了珠寶啊等痕跡,說明教授從一開始就要驗證的事情就是GDcivilization的證據。  A GD有埃及和China的東西肯定是later不是earlier C little in common 就不對,是negative的感覺 D more research沒有提到,並且本文強調的是證據
 
 4重點詞在artifact上,後來教授又說道其他的珠寶經過identification也是屬於GD的,所以他們對於珠寶製作很skilled

5、這個其實也是很好聽的一個點,下邊說到一個record關於他們,有兩個theory關於他們轉移,第一個是因為河道改變,所以他們也跟隨其遷移,第二個是neighboring settlement,沒有聽到war但是還是根據很明顯的neighbor就可以選出來,floodingearthquake沒有提及。
 
6、教授最後一個詞說的是otherwise,教授總的意思就是給他錢不一定會有什麼有用的地方,但是不給我們又不能確定我們會失去什麼東西,所以看出教授的不確定。

(來源:環球教育)

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Section1
Conversation-1
1Our preference is to have our own office.對arrange work space  

 
2、學生在聽到  semiprivate的建議之後說  We’ll work with then.  後面又說他
更加不想沒有為公場所,所以semiprivate也是可以接受的。
 
3Assistant: Do you have the registration approval letter from the committee?
That would give verification I need.  
 

4Student: I don’t have it with me but I’ll get it from my dorm room.  說明他要
去拿信回來。  
 

5、解析:Student: Speakers always charge fee.   所以這個學生認為speaker需要
funding
 

托福TPO30聽力解析:Lecture-1  
    
1、教授講了猴子和海豚也許會有metacognition
,也就是
  feel uncertainty

過海豚和猴子的實驗證明這個結論,但不是把猴子和海豚拿去對比。
 
2Researchers have long been interested in whether possess this capability but
they couldn’t test it. Because animals are unable to report their feelings.  
 

3The closer we came in pitch to the first one, the harder will be for the dolphin
to correctly identify as it lower .  這些比較說明是通過逐漸改變pitch來實現難度增
加的。
 
4But there was a problem, other researchers protested that the response is
simply a learned or conditioned response.  對應A項

 
5So  what does it tell us about animal consciousness or animal awareness of
themselves and there state of mind?  猴子的反應並不僅僅是  condition response
所以這個實驗說明猴子也許可以感覺到不確定性。
 
6You remembered in intro psychology right?  說明教授覺得既然是基處課學過的,大家都應該知道。
  
Lecture-2
 

1We will be looking at dinosaurs parenting behavior .  寫這個 Topic Sentence
相關的只有B項 
 

2Well, exclusive care by the male parent is much less common, but it dose
occur......males contribute to parental care in fewer than 5% ...... It is even less
frequent on reptiles.  說明有父親看護
孩子很少見。 


3、教授推測鳥類的行為是源於恐龍,而鱷魚是只有
females
看護巢穴,所以

鳥類與恐龍相似之處更多。
        
4This spongy tissues serves as a source of calcium for eggshell formation.  
 
5、教授說巢邊的恐龍骨化石並没有  spongy tissue  也就是大部分是males
由此推測males可能在take care babies.

(來源: 環球教育)   

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section1托福獨立口語
 

  Task 1:

  解題思路:

  1) University professor

  l Impart knowledge

  l Have holidays

  l Stay with young people

  2) Environmental scientist

  l Help reduce environmental pollution

  l Can be an exemplary role

  3) Newspaper journalist

  l Reveal social evils

  Can meet more people and news
參考答案:
  Personally speaking, I think the university professor is the most rewarding job. And I have a couple of reasons for this. First, I think the duty of university is to impart knowledge. University professors cultivate talents for our country and can enjoy the accomplishment of educating, and at the same time, the university professor can enlarge his own scope of knowledge. Secondly, being a university professor can always keep young mentality. Because university professor always stays with young people and can be benefited by young spirits. Besides, university professors have fixed holidays compared with other jobs, which allow them to have a good rest and an adjustment of life. So that’s why I think the university professor is the most rewarding job.
 

  Task 2:

 
解題思路:

  A: Study in places where there are other people around.

  J 1)可以和其他人共用資料,交流想法(share information or study material with other people)

  2)有困難可以得到其他人的幫助(can ask other people for help when meeting some difficult problems)

  L 可能收到打擾,降低學習效率(can be distracted by other people and reduce efficiency)

  B: study in places where there are few or no people around.

  J 1) 安靜,不受打擾(learning in quiet atmosphere and can focus on study)

  2)能夠更好的鍛煉自己的自主學習能力和思考能力

  L 可能會遇到自己無法解決的難題,學習受阻(meet some problems but no one can help)
參考答案:
  Personally speaking, I prefer to study in public places where there are other people around. First, I think people can share some study materials or resources with each other freely in public places, and they don’t have to worry about disturbing other people. Besides, they also can exchange their thoughts or ideas to expand their sight of view. Secondly, I think studying in public places can increase efficiency. Because when you meet some difficult problems which you cannot solve on your own, you can get other people’s help when you study with others together. But if you study alone, you just get stuck when you meet problems, and can’t move on. So that’s why I prefer to study in public places.

section2托福綜合口語
  Task 3:

 參考答案:

  The writer of the letter suggests the university remove old bicycles from the racks, because they have been missed by their owners and this measure can save a lot of spaces for people using bikes. The woman in the conversation totally agrees with the proposal. First, she says that these bicycles have lost some parts such as handle bars or wheels, and many other bikes are rusty because of the rain. Or the university can attach notes on them to remind their owners to take them back, or they will be removed by the security. Secondly, the woman says that these old bikes take up a lot of spaces, and it is very difficult for other students to find a place to park. She always has to park her bike in another building, which is very inconvenient. So that’s why she agrees with the proposal.
 

  Task 4:

  參考答案:

  The woman’s problem is that she is very tired because she hasn’t got a good sleep last night, but she has to give a presentation in an hour.

  The first solution is that she can talk to the professor and explain the reason. Maybe the professor will allow her to reschedule the presentation.

  The second solution is that she can try her best to give the presentation.

  I personally prefer the second solution. Because firstly, she says that she will have a lot of other tasks to do. If she put off the presentation, maybe it is difficult for her to find another proper time to give the speech. Secondly, if she has prepared enough for the presentation, she still can make a good presentation even though she is very tired, and the coffee also can help a lot.
 

  Task 5:

  參考答案:

  The passage gives the definition of scatter hoarding, which means that some animals store food by dividing food into different places in order to survive food-scarce season.

  In the lecture, the professor gives the example of a kind of squirrel. This kind of squirrel collects a lot of nuts in autumn which is a season of nuts harvesting. It spends a lot of time collecting and preparing the nut. Because it is hard for it to find nuts in winter. Then it digs small holes on the ground and buries the nuts in the hole to preserve food. But it doesn’t put all the nuts in one hole. It digs a lot of holes and put just one nut in one hole. Because even other animas find some nuts of them, the squirrel still have other nuts to help it survive the winter.
 

  Task 6:

  參考答案:

  In the lecture, the professor talks about two strategies for companies to diversify their products in order to increase sales. The first strategy is to use the existing technology to develop new products. The professor gives the example of a television company. The television company also can produce computer monitor because the technology for both television and computer monitor is very similar. So the company can reach new customers by developing new products. The second strategy is to appeal to existing customers by new products. The professor gives the example of a ski company. The ski company must have a lot of customers who like skiing very much. So the company also can produce some ski jackets to meet these customers’ other demand. Because these customer are likely to buy the company’s ski jackets with the same brand.

(來源: 環球教育)

 

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1正確答案:Ainnumerable是不可記數的,A是無數的,B是偶然的,C是大的,D是重複的。這個單詞是numerable加否定前缀,很容易就能推出意思來。

 2、正確答案CA答案對應第一段第二句, B對應第一段第三句,D對應一段最後一句。C與原文衝突,原文一直在說darwin理論被人們廣泛接受。

 3、正確答案D。划線句子的主幹部分是斷點平衡論挑戰了原來的漸進論,然後解釋了斷點平衡論的内容。A選項which修飾不明,容易產生誤解;B選項與原文矛盾,C與原文不符,原文SN的觀點是change的發生是without lengthy transition的。D和原文意思相符,並且也包含了所有的主幹部分。

 4、正確答案C。根據原文,漸進論是說物種演變是通過長時間的緩慢改變發生的;斷點平衡論是說物種演變是短期爆發的。所以選擇C,進化試是否匀速發生的。
 5、正確答案:C。根據lack of intermediate fossils定位到第三段倒數第二句,在往前看一句說,這一情况對於達爾文學說是不和的,而達爾文學說正是漸進論,這一段的最後也說原來的物種突然被替换,而不是漸漸進化改變的。所以C符合原文意思。 A與原文第一句破折號後矛盾,原文說這一現象一直被IgnoredB選項原文矛盾,該現象應該是反對了達爾文學說,支持了物種有長期不改變的論點。D雖然正確但是只是本段的细節,不能表達主题,所以不選。

6Compel本身是強迫,此處作為evidence的形容詞可以延伸為說服力強的。因此答案選B 有說服力的。A是驚奇的,C是有争議的,D是细節的。都不沾邊。另外通過句義可以判斷,前文说馬的進化was once 是經典的漸進論的證明,is now(輕微轉折)提供了“equally”怎麼樣的證據證明了斷點平衡論,前文既然說對gradual evolution很支持,那麼後文出現equally,那應該對斷點論也是有力證據。因此選B
7
、排除题。正確答案:D。對應部分在第四段的第二句和第五句,已用红色字體標出。只有D選項沒有出現。

8、正確答案:C 這一句話說一個怎麼樣的單一基因就足以變一個普通飛禽的一對的正常翅為兩對翅膀,所以有推理應該是要改變這個基因。所以選CAlteration是修改,變更,A選項是不完美,B是替换,D是複製帶入後都改變了原文的意思。
9、正確答案:A 根據peter Sheldon定位到原文第二句。後面對trilobites進行了描述,A選項對應了原文第三句(已用红色字體標註),後文又繼續說沒有明顯的斷點。所以A正確。 B與原文第四句衝突。C與第三句衝突,D原文沒有這種說法。而且上文也表明它符合gradual evolvement10正確答案Coccasionally,是偶然偶爾的意思。A是毫無疑問的,B是基本上,C是偶爾有一次。D是在一定程度上。因此應該選C。並且上文提出問題說是否有過逐漸進化?那麼下文給的是一個逐漸進化的例子,所以應該是在表達偶爾有一兩個的意思。

10正確答案A 上文說實地勘測會給competing theories提供test,第七段就给了試驗例子,那麼就證明是A正確。B與原文衝突,這個例子是支持漸進論的。C也不對,理由同上。D與原文目的不符。

11、正確答案C。首先句子開頭出現了They,那麼我們應該能在前文找到一個提到人物的地方,句子又提出environmental condition的作用,那麼後文應該會出現對這一理論的解釋,那麼C是符合的,也可以進行帶入驗證。

12、斷點平衡論論點為物種變化發生突然,快速,符合。

對應文章第一段第一句話,符合漸進論

與原文第四段第二句矛盾,原文說馬進化會變大。不選

原文第一段第一句,符合漸進論

對應原文第三段。符合點斷平衡論

原文没提到,不選

原文最後一段,說漸進論應該會是環境比較穩定的情况下的進化規則。符合漸進論。

 

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1、正確答案:B。 看到第一段红色標註的部分說明了同樣的behavior會同時發生在play和其他一些非play的情况中。所以B正確。A與原文第一句矛盾。C選項没有提到。D選項與原文第一段最後一句矛盾。

 

2、正確答案A 看第二段的最後兩句。倒數第二句說動物玩耍的原因仍然在被debating,後面說確定玩耍的作用(function)非常難,那也就對應了原題的challengeBecause後面出現了原因,說這些function是長期的,其beneficial要到動物成年才出現。所以跟A選項吻痕。BC選項原文沒提到。D選項也和問題無關。


3、正確答案:DConsiderable:重要的,值得考慮的。選項A是最初的,B是實用的,C是最终的,D是重大的,有意義的。所以D

符合,另外後文提到了各種costloss。所以可以理解considerable cost可以理解為一定量的損失或者風險。


4、正確答案:B. 從Therefore開始後面的都是potential cost三種cost已經用红色字體標出。B選項看似提到了,但是原文是說失去了fat store的機會,而不是因為playbuild up了。所以B錯

5、正確答案A 原文中從other studies 開始有描述了另外的觀點。說greater stimulation不僅會影響大腦的大小,也會增加神經细胞間的連接的數量,而這個stimulation是由active play提供的。根據上文,環境越複雜,active play就越多,因此stimulation就越多,導致動物的大腦更大,也就更重。所以A選項符合這個觀點。BCD都没提到。


6、正確答案C。這道題的關鍵詞在詞needed for survival。因為prey speciespredator species對於survival的要求不同,所以導致他們play behavior也不同。所以選C ABD原文都沒提到。


7、正確答案Acomparative是相對的,相當的。A是相對的;B是暫時的;C是充足的;D是完成的。所以選擇A。這裡C可能會是迷惑選項,因為其意思帶入原文也通順,但是失去了原詞的比較的那層意思。

8、正確答案C 這道題中的原句主幹是learning social behavior is important,特别是對於群居的動物。然後用了monkey做例證。A選項只提到了monkeys要控制自己才能融入群體,但沒提到主幹部分。 B選項說自私和攻擊性強的動物藥學social behavior,這就把其他動物排除在外了,改變了原句的意思。C正確,不僅提到了monkey也說到了其他的social animalswhich means species that live in groups)為了融入群體要學social behavior D是錯誤選項,原文並沒說猴子太自私以至於不能理解give and take…與原文矛盾,不選。


9、正確答案:Bpotentially潛在地。A是毫無疑問地; B是可能地;C是不幸地;D是快速地。前半句中有May be,表達了一半可能性,後半句沒有轉折,應該是接上上半句往下說的。所以意思應該相近。

 

10、正確答案D 這一段前半部分一直在描述說有動物之間為誤以為是真的aggression,中間出現了thus證明後面會說解决的方法。這裡說解决方法是用clear signals 去表達playfulness。所以答案是D

11
、正確答案D。要插入的句子開頭為With message such as those,那麼說明前面肯定會描述一些messages,後面又說even dogs,那證明前面應該也提到了狗的行為。所以這裡應該插在最後一個空裡。

正確答案:A E F

選項A對應在原文第一段,提到play的行為包括了runningclimblingfighting等等aggression的行為,但是很難確定其function所以A正確。

讓B這個原文沒有提到,雖然第三段提到了potential cost,後面也說adults通常會讓young在相對安全的情况下play,但並沒有說太多太多的小動物變成了victims。不選

C這個原文雖然說他們要學social behavior,但诶提到說這類動物要學著去dominant,不選

D選項對應原文第一段,但選項中的原因和原文不符,不選

E對應原文第三段,potential cost提到了loss of energysecurity risks等等,但是第一段也提到說playlong-term beneficial的,第四段開頭說好處一定會outweighcosts正確,選

 F選項對應原文第四,五段。第四段說Play會影響大腦發育,神經细胞間連接的數量。第五段說到了有益於muscle tissue的發育。後文第六段也提到了social Benefits。正確,選

 
12
、正確答案:C 根據young & adult定位到第六段第一句。說成年動物要讓年輕的動物在相對安全的環境下玩。 因此可以得到答案C正確。A原文沒有說讓young去學怎麼dominantB原文雖然提到social group 但沒提到是從adults身上學習。D原文完全没有相關描寫。

 

 

 

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1.     與單詞 severed在原文中的含義最接近的是 (Vocabulary question)

a)       cut off (切斷)

b)      viewed (被看見)

c)       protected (被保護)

d)      rescued (被拯救)

解析:答案選Asevered的動詞原型是sever,意思是“切割”。

 

2.     根據第一段,Siam的舊時統治家庭在以下哪個方面沒有發生改變? (Negative Factual Information Question)

a)       他們的收入减少

b)      他們的子孫被派到偏遠省分任職

c)       他們能夠賣掉原本屬於他們的土地

d)      他們對於農民的控制降低

解析:答案選C。選項A對應原文第三句“simply had their revenues taken away or restricted”選項B對應原文第三句“their sons were enticed away to schools for district officers, later to be posted in some faraway province”選項D對應段落倒數第二句“with the ending in 1905 of the practice of forcing peasant farmers to work part-time for local rulers

 

3.     根據第二段,以下哪項關於1905年的Siam是對的? Factual Information Question

a)       Siam的城市人口開始遷出城市進入鄉村

b)      Siam的中央平原在那時的人口密集程度和當今一樣

c)       Siam非常鄉村化,以至於老虎會在曼谷游走

d)      Siam的鄉村數量比1800s晚期要多

解析:答案選D。根據段落第二,三句“According to the governments first census of the rural population, taken in 1905, there were about thirty thousand villages in Siam. This was probably a large increase over the figure even two or three decades earlier, during the late 1800s.”意思是:根據政府對鄉村人口數量的統計,1905Siam3萬村庄。這相比1800s晚期,甚至相比二三十年前,都有很大的增加。

 

4.     與短語“rice-deficient portions”在原文中的含義最接近的是 (Vocabulary question)

a)       消耗大米的地區

b)      大米不夠的地區

c)       種植大米的地區

d)      主要依靠大米的地區

解析:答案選Bdeficient的意思是“不夠,缺乏”,not having enough of something

 

5.     在第三段中,以下哪項不是Siam經濟增長的標誌? Negative factual information question

a)       大米的價格增加

b)      離開Siam的大米數量增加

c)       種植的大米營養價值增加

d)      用來生產大米的土地增加

解析:答案選C。段落第四句“The average annual volume of rice exported from Siam grew from under 60 million kilograms per year in the late 1850s to more than 660 million kilograms per year at the turn of the century”對應了選項B。“and over the same period the average price per kilogram doubled.”對應了選項A。第五句“During the same period, the area planted in rice increased from about 230,000 acres to more than350,000 acres.”對應了選項D

 

6.     根據第三段,農民家庭增加大米的種植數量,部分通過 Factual Information Question

a)       種植產量更大的大米類型

b)      和其他農民家庭形成農村合作社

c)       在之前沒有種植大米的地方種植大米

d)      雇佣勞工幫助照顧田地

解析:答案選C。段落最後一句“This growth was achieved as the result of the collective decisions of thousands of peasants families to expand the amount of land they cultivated, clear and plant new land, or adopt more intensive methods of agriculture. 這一增長主要因為幾千農民集體决定增加耕地,清理並種植新土地或者採用強度更大的農耕方式。

 

7.     根據第四段,政府终止農民為其勞動的義務後發生了什麼? (Factual Information Question)

a)       農村人變得與貴族聯繫更緊密。

b)      農村人花更多時間種植大米來獲利。

c)       政府给那些為其種植大米的勞工付薪水。

d)      政府引入了特定的大米税。

解析:答案選B。段落最后一句“Under good conditions, it made good sense to thousands of peasant families to in effect work full-time at what they had been able to do only part-time previouslybecause of the requirement to work for the government: grow rice for the marketplace.”意思是:在條件好的时候,很好理解為什麼成千的農民家庭開始把以前兼職做的事情(因為他們需要為政府工作)變成全職做:為市場種植大米。

 

8.     以下哪個選項最好地描述了三段和四段的關係? (Organizational Question)

a)       第三段討論了Siam的經濟增長,第四段進一步提供證據。

b)      第四段接著第三段討論促使經濟增長的農業進步。

c)       第三段提到的Bowring Treaty,第四段檢查其影響。

d)      第三段提到種植大米的擴张,第四段討論了導致擴张的兩個因素中的一個。

解析:答案選D。第三段開頭二句“Much population movement involved the opening up of new lands for rice cultivation. Two things made this possible and encouraged it to happen.”大量人口遷徙涉及到開發新土地耕種大米。兩個因素鼓勵並使其成為可能。第三句開頭用了“first,”接下來講了第一個因素:也就是Bowring Treaty的影響。第四段開頭句“They were able to do so because of our second consideration. 他們這樣做也因為第二個考慮。第四段講的就是這個第二個考慮。

 

9.     與單詞dispersed在原文中的含義最接近的是 (Vocabulary question)

a)       spread out (分散)

b)      gained power (獲得權力)

c)       adapted (適應)

d)      specialized (專門化)

解析:答案選A disperse : distribute or spread over a wide area.

 

10. 與單詞compulsory在原文中的含義最接近的是 (Vocabulary question)

a)       foreign (國外的)

b)      formal (正式的)

c)       required(要求的)

d)      preferred(更喜歡的)

解析:答案選Ccompulsory required by law or a rule.

 

11. 根據第五段,以下哪項關於Siam Fifth Reign的農村人是正確的? (Factual Information Question)

a)       他們被迫按照政府要求把種植大米獲得的一大部分利潤用來註冊。

b)      他們的生活還是很困難,盡管統計表明他們的生活質量有所改善。

c)       他們中間的非農民受到政府的幫助要大於農民。

d)      相比Fifth Reign的现代政府的统治,他們被精英统治的时候更富裕。

解析:答案選B。段落最後兩句話“As well as can be measured, rural standards of living improved in the Fifth Reign. But the statistical averages mean little when measured against the harsh realities of peasant life.”同樣被測量的是,農村的生活標準有所提升。但在農民生活的艱苦現實面前,測量的平均值沒什麼意義。

 

12. 根據第五段,政府官僚通過哪種方式入侵農村生活? (Factual Information Question)

a)       要求人們註冊他們的牲口和土地

b)      要求人們買某些特定種類的進口物品

c)       不鼓勵人們製造手工製品和工具

d)      鼓勵更多的人務農

解析:答案選A。段落第五句“Provincial police began to appear, along with district officers and cattle registration and land deeds and registration for compulsory military service. 地方警察開始出現,随之而來的還有區域行政官以及牲口註冊和土地法,外加義務兵役制。

 

 

13. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

 

And yet, how is it that the peasants were able to choose to expand their economic activity in response to the market opportunities?

 

解析:答案選A。段首句“they were able to do so because of…”to do so的内容一定是有所指,而且只能指代前文内容,而且正好符合插入句子的内容。不僅如此,because of之後的内容也回答了插入句子所提出的問題。

 

14.   

During the late nineteenth century, changes in Siams power structure had important economic consequences.

  

a)       發生人口移動並加強大米種植是因為Siam更多積極地参與到了國際貿易中。

b)      税收的改變以及不再要求人民為统治者兼職工作使得農民可以為市場生產更多的大米。

c)       人口增加部分是因為Siam的弄明能夠生產更多額大米来餵養人。

d)      土地變得如此珍貴以至於農民不得不從政府那兒實地耕作。

e)       燼管農村生活標準也許有所改善,但農村之間發展不均衡並且政府官僚對農村生活中有很大影響。

f)        20世纪早期,政府現代化導致農民從傳統統治者手中獲得的自由又丢失了。

 

解析:答案:ABE

 

選項A正確,概括了第三段的内容。

選項B正確,概括了第四段的内容。

選項C錯誤,因果關係在原文中没有體現。

選項D錯誤,原文沒說過農民要從政府那兒買地

選項E正確,概括了最後一段的内容。

選項F錯誤,原文沒講到自由丢失了。

 

(來源:john_ny的博客)

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1.     与单词severed在原文中的含义最接近的是 (Vocabulary question)

a)       cut off (切断)

b)      viewed (被看见)

c)       protected (被保护)

d)      rescued (被拯救)

解析:答案选Asevered的动词原型是sever,意思是“切割”。

 

2.     根据第一段,Siam的旧时统治家庭在以下哪个方面没有发生改变? (Negative Factual Information Question)

a)       他们的收入减少

b)      他们的子孙被派到偏远省份任职

c)       他们能够卖掉原本属于他们的土地

d)      他们对于农民的控制降低

解析:答案选C。选项A对应原文第三句“simply had their revenues taken away or restricted”选项B对应原文第三句“their sons were enticed away to schools for district officers, later to be posted in some faraway province”选项D对应段落倒数第二句“with the ending in 1905 of the practice of forcing peasant farmers to work part-time for local rulers

 

3.     根据第二段,以下哪项关于1905年的Siam是对的? Factual Information Question

a)       Siam的城市人口开始迁出城市进入乡村

b)      Siam的中央平原在那时的人口密集程度和当今一样

c)       Siam非常乡村化,以至于老虎会在曼谷游走

d)      Siam的乡村数量比1800s晚期要多

解析:答案选D。根据段落第二,三句“According to the governments first census of the rural population, taken in 1905, there were about thirty thousand villages in Siam. This was probably a large increase over the figure even two or three decades earlier, during the late 1800s.”意思是:根据政府对乡村人口数量的统计,1905Siam3万村庄。这相比1800s晚期,甚至相比二三十年前,都有很大的增加。

 

4.     与短语“rice-deficient portions”在原文中的含义最接近的是 (Vocabulary question)

a)       消耗大米的地区

b)      大米不够的地区

c)       种植大米的地区

d)      主要依靠大米的地区

解析:答案选Bdeficient的意思是“不够,缺乏”,not having enough of something

 

5.     在第三段中,以下哪项不是Siam经济增长的标志? Negative factual information question

a)       大米的价格增加

b)      离开Siam的大米数量增加

c)       种植的大米营养价值增加

d)      用来生产大米的土地增加

解析:答案选C。段落第四句“The average annual volume of rice exported from Siam grew from under 60 million kilograms per year in the late 1850s to more than 660 million kilograms per year at the turn of the century”对应了选项B。“and over the same period the average price per kilogram doubled.”对应了选项A。第五句“During the same period, the area planted in rice increased from about 230,000 acres to more than350,000 acres.”对应了选项D

 

6.     根据第三段,农民家庭增加大米的种植数量,部分通过 Factual Information Question

a)       种植产量更大的大米类型

b)      和其他农民家庭形成农村合作社

c)       在之前没有种植大米的地方种植大米

d)      雇佣劳工帮助照顾田地

解析:答案选C。段落最后一句“This growth was achieved as the result of the collective decisions of thousands of peasants families to expand the amount of land they cultivated, clear and plant new land, or adopt more intensive methods of agriculture. 这一增长主要因为几千农民集体决定增加耕地,清理并种植新土地或者采用强度更大的农耕方式。

 

7.     根据第四段,政府终止农民为其劳动的义务后发生了什么? (Factual Information Question)

a)       农村人变得与贵族联系更紧密。

b)      农村人花更多时间种植大米来获利。

c)       政府给那些为其种植大米的劳工付薪水。

d)      政府引入了特定的大米税。

解析:答案选B。段落最后一句“Under good conditions, it made good sense to thousands of peasant families to in effect work full-time at what they had been able to do only part-time previouslybecause of the requirement to work for the government: grow rice for the marketplace.”意思是:在条件好的时候,很好理解为什么成千的农民家庭开始把以前兼职做的事情(因为他们需要为政府工作)变成全职做:为市场种植大米。

 

8.     以下哪个选项最好地描述了三段和四段的关系? (Organizational Question)

a)       第三段讨论了Siam的经济增长,第四段进一步提供证据。

b)      第四段接着第三段讨论促使经济增长的农业进步。

c)       第三段提到的Bowring Treaty,第四段检查其影响。

d)      第三段提到种植大米的扩张,第四段讨论了导致扩张的两个因素中的一个。

解析:答案选D。第三段开头二句“Much population movement involved the opening up of new lands for rice cultivation. Two things made this possible and encouraged it to happen.”大量人口迁徙涉及到开发新土地耕种大米。两个因素鼓励并使其成为可能。第三句开头用了“first,”接下来讲了第一个因素:也就是Bowring Treaty的影响。第四段开头句“They were able to do so because of our second consideration. 他们这样做也因为第二个考虑。第四段讲的就是这个第二个考虑。

 

9.     与单词dispersed在原文中的含义最接近的是 (Vocabulary question)

a)       spread out (分散)

b)      gained power (获得权力)

c)       adapted (适应)

d)      specialized (专门化)

解析:答案选A disperse : distribute or spread over a wide area.

 

10. 与单词compulsory在原文中的含义最接近的是 (Vocabulary question)

a)       foreign (国外的)

b)      formal (正式的)

c)       required(要求的)

d)      preferred(更喜欢的)

解析:答案选Ccompulsory required by law or a rule.

 

11. 根据第五段,以下哪项关于Siam Fifth Reign的农村人是正确的? (Factual Information Question)

a)       他们被迫按照政府要求把种植大米获得的一大部分利润用来注册。

b)      他们的生活还是很困难,尽管统计表明他们的生活质量有所改善。

c)       他们中间的非农民受到政府的帮助要大于农民。

d)      相比Fifth Reign的现代政府的统治,他们被精英统治的时候更富于。

解析:答案选B。段落最后两句话“As well as can be measured, rural standards of living improved in the Fifth Reign. But the statistical averages mean little when measured against the harsh realities of peasant life.”同样被测量的是,农村的生活标准有所提升。但在农民生活的艰苦现实面前,测量的平均值没什么意义。

 

12. 根据第五段,政府官僚通过哪种方式入侵农村生活? (Factual Information Question)

a)       要求人们注册他们的牲口和土地

b)      要求人们买某些特定种类的进口物品

c)       不鼓励人们制造手工制品和工具

d)      鼓励更多的人务农

解析:答案选A。段落第五句“Provincial police began to appear, along with district officers and cattle registration and land deeds and registration for compulsory military service. 地方警察开始出现,随之而来的还有区域行政官以及牲口注册和土地法,外加义务兵役制。

 

 

13. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

 

And yet, how is it that the peasants were able to choose to expand their economic activity in response to the market opportunities?

 

解析:答案选A。段首句“they were able to do so because of…”to do so的内容一定是有所指,而且只能指代前文内容,而且正好符合插入句子的内容。不仅如此,because of之后的内容也回答了插入句子所提出的问题。

 

14.   

During the late nineteenth century, changes in Siams power structure had important economic consequences.

  

a)       发生人口移动并加强大米种植是因为Siam更多积极地参与到了国际贸易中。

b)      税收的改变以及不再要求人民为统治者兼职工作使得农民可以为市场生产更多的大米。

c)       人口增加部分是因为Siam的弄明能够生产更多额大米来喂养人。

d)      土地变得如此珍贵以至于农民不得不从政府那儿买地耕作。

e)       尽管农村生活标准也许有所改善,但农村之间发展不均衡并且政府官僚对农村生活中有很大影响。

f)        20世纪早期,政府现代化导致农民从传统统治者手中获得的自由又丢失了。

 

解析:答案:ABE

 

选项A正确,概括了第三段的内容。

选项B正确,概括了第四段的内容。

选项C错误,因果关系在原文中没有体现。

选项D错误,原文没说过农民要从政府那儿买地。

选项E正确,概括了最后一段的内容。

选项F错误,原文没讲到自由丢失了。

 

(來源:john_ny的博客)

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Energy and the Industrial Revolution

 
1.【考點分析】本題為修辭目的題,注意此類題目並不是考例子本身,而是要尋找其修辭的目的,然後與選項進行對比。關鍵字為英國有大量的煤,在此前的幾句話說大英帝國能源短缺,舉例說明作為主要熱源的木材供應減少,燃煤多但不能有效地轉化成機械能。這說明什麼呢,這說明英國的能源短缺不是因為燃料缺乏,選C.
【選項分析】
A. 為了反對“18世紀英國面臨能源短缺的說法(根據原文,煤儲量大這一事實,並不是構成反對能源短缺說的理由,這一選項與原文矛盾)
B.為了解釋為什麼是煤,而不是其它能源變成了18世紀英國的主要民用與工業熱量來源。(偷樑換柱型干擾項。根據本段倒數第3句話,當時主要的能量來源是木材)
C.為了表明英國的能源短缺不是缺乏燃料所致(正確:not the result of a lack of fuel 與原文的 had large amounts of coal 形成對應)
D.該選項是玩穿越,本段並沒有提到19世紀,更沒有提到採煤成為19世紀主要行業)
 
2. 【考點分析】本題為細節題,考察利用關鍵字定位以及對同一含義的不同詞彙與句子結構的理解能力。要想讓18世紀的工業革命成為可能,一定要得以解決的能源方面的問題是什麼?根據第一段前半部分,能源是工業革命興起的主要原因毋庸置疑,那麼能源問題是什麼呢?根據關鍵字“the problem of energy” 定位到倒數第2句話:”Great Britain had large amounts of coal; however, there were not yet efficient means by which to produce mechanical energy or to power machinery.” 這句話表明,能源問題就是有燃料但缺乏用燃料來驅動機器的有效方式,這個問題必須得到解決才能使得工業革命成為可能,所以選B。注意:means ways 是近義詞,另外閱讀裡經常還有 method, approach, avenue.
【選項分析】
A. 水與風不能得到有效的利用(這個選項與第一段第3句意義矛盾)
B. 缺乏驅動機器的有效方式(正確:對應第一段的倒數第2句)
C.蒸汽引擎需要大量的煤,而煤是供應不足的(與倒數第2句矛盾,原文說Great Britain had large amounts of coal
D.人類與動物都不夠強壯,無法為工業活動提供能源(是第2句的偷樑換柱,原文說18世紀之前,人們的能量來源有植物、動物與人力)
 
3. 【考點分析】本題為排除資訊題,考查蒸汽引擎引發的紗廠變化除了哪一個。考查學生的是各個選項在文中的位置,需要依靠定位出來的位置進行對比排除。根據A選項的關鍵字英國進口大量原棉定位至第二段第5” The shift to increased mechanization in cotton production is apparent in the import of raw cotton and the sale of cotton goods”和第6” Between 1760 and 1850, the amount of raw cotton imported increased 230 times.” 根據這兩句話,直接排除AB; 再由C選項裡的關鍵字location定位到第4” Since the steam engine was fired by coal, the large mills did not need to be located by rivers, as had mills that used water- driven machines.”,從而排除C; 正確答案為Dsmaller mills壓根沒有出現。

 
4. 【考點分析】
詞彙題,關鍵在於先判斷,後檢驗的步驟。apparent意思是明顯的,初步判斷選項A意思與之相同。其他選項均無此意。接著,放回文中檢驗,代入原文,The shift to increased mechanization in cotton production is apparent in the import of raw cotton and the sale of cotton goods.原棉進口和棉缺口銷售情況明顯表明棉花製造業的機械化增強,可以進行同義替換,所以正確選項為A.
【選項分析】
A.    (明顯可見)
B.    (輔助)
C.    (相關)
D.    (被跟隨)
 
5. 【考點分析】本題為細節題,考察利用關鍵字定位以及對同一含義的不同詞彙與句子結構的理解能力。根據 1850,英國最重要的出口這兩個關鍵字進行定位,找到第二段的倒數第2和倒數第3句話:Between 1760 and 1850, the amount of raw cotton imported increased 230 times. Production of British cotton goods increased sixtyfold, and cotton cloth became Great Britain's most important product, accounting for one-half of all exports.根據劃線部分選B答案。
【選項分析】
A. (之前兩句提到,但只要細心核對關鍵字最重要的出口就不會進入圈套)
B.  (正確:句子結構有變化,原詞對應)
C.(末句提到,但並非最重要的出口產品)
D.(本段提及多次,但與最重要的出口產品不匹配)
 
6.【考點分析】詞彙題,關鍵在於先判斷,後檢驗的步驟。先理解單詞的意思為隨之發生的,作為結果的,初步確立選項A為答案,然後代入原句進行檢驗。The success of the steam engine resulted in increased demands for coal, and the consequent increase in coal production was made possible as the steam-powered pumps drained water from the ever-deeper coal seams found below the water table. 蒸汽引擎的成功導致對煤的需求增多,坐而引發煤的產量增多,產量增多之所以成為可能,是因為蒸汽動力泵能為水位線下更深層的煤層進行排水。可以進行同義替換,所以正確選項為A
【選項分析】
A. (作為結果的,因而發生的)
B. (鼓勵、贊助、促進的)
C. (有著良好記錄的)
D. (立即、即刻、緊迫的)
 
7. 【考點分析】本題為修辭目的題,考查的是整個段落在全文的作用。題幹給予的資訊與關鍵字太少,只能排查選項,用排除法找出最佳修辭目的。根據第二段的第1句,我們知道第二段整體在說In the late 1700s James Watt designed an efficient and commercially viable steam engine that was soon applied to a 1 variety of industrial uses as it became cheaper to use,高效的蒸汽引擎價格下降後被廣泛用於各種工業如採煤與棉紡。最符合這層意思的選項是D,歷史學家認為能源是工業革命的主要動力。的確符合第二段在全文中承上啟下的作用。
 
【選項分析】
A.  借助於原材料進口得以降低成本並增產,(不是第二段的主題)
B.    機械能的好處上全國受益原文並沒有提及
C.  單個國家的發展不能產生工業革命(第二段沒有沒有提及)
D.   歷史學家強調能源問題在工業革命產生中的作用(正確,對應第二段主題句)
 5  

 8.【考點分析】
本題為細節題,考察利用關鍵字定位以及對同一含義的不同詞彙與句子結構的理解能力。根據關鍵字為什麼焦炭的使用對鑄鐵行業重要定位到第三段的第23句:Charcoal, made from wood and thus in limited supply, was replaced with coal-derived coke (substance left after coal is heated) as steam-driven bellows came into use for producing of raw iron. Impurities were burnt away with the use of coke, producing a high-quality refined iron.蒸汽驅動風箱用於鑄鐵伴隨焦炭取代木炭,使得生鐵中的雜質被焦炭熔化,生產出了高品質的精煉鐵。由此可以判斷C選項為答案,焦炭的重要性在於取代了木炭用於生鐵與精煉鐵的生產。
【選項分析】
A. 説明把木頭轉化為木炭(根據原文,焦炭與煤有關與木頭無關,與鑄鐵這一關鍵環節更是沒有匹配)
B. 說焦炭減少了鑄鐵工藝中對蒸汽設備的依賴(與原文矛盾,原文說正是蒸汽風箱的使用,便利了用焦炭熔化生鐵中的雜質,精煉鐵的生產才成為可能)
C. 焦炭取代了木炭用於生鐵與精煉鐵的生產(正確:與題幹邏輯關係成立,與原文資訊相符)
D. 說焦炭讓機器用於採煤(比較明顯的干擾項,根據原文,焦炭的作用是煉鐵的好幫手而不是採煤)
 
9. 【考點分析】
本題為排除資訊題,考查19世紀英國鑄鐵行業哪個現象沒有被提到。應該先對每個選項的關鍵字進行定位,然後分別對比排除。A選項的蒸汽風箱明顯在第三段第2句提到;B選項對應倒數第2句;C選項對應第4句,Reduced cost was also instrumental in developing steam-powered rolling mills capable of producing finished iron of variousshapes and sizes答案就是D,對品質鐵的需求增多引發價格上升這層因果關係第三段壓根沒有提及。

 
10. 【考點分析】
詞彙題,關鍵在於先判斷,後檢驗的步驟。先理解單詞的意思為發起的,主動的初步確立選項D為答案,然後代入原句進行檢驗: However, the arrival of the steam engine initiated a complete transformation in rail transportation, entrenching and expanding the Industrial Revolution.說的是蒸汽引擎的出現引發了軌道交通領域的一場徹底轉變,從而使工業革命得以鞏固與拓展,同義替換無誤,選D
【選項分析】
A. (期待,預期)
B. (加速)
C. (展開,傳播)
D. (開始,發起)
 
11.【考點分析】
本題為推理題,考查的是對於段落特殊細節限定詞的定位,以及相關資訊的查找和比對,尋找語義上的同義替換。根據題幹中的關鍵字軌道交通的轉變暗示了什麼,A 選項前半句是事實,後半句說城市失業率增加沒有依據;B 選項前半句是事實,後半句屬於無中生有,less trade, ocean shipping 都沒有提到;D 選項也是沒有依據,原文中沒有涉及工人工資問題,更何談工資升高?因而C正確。鐵路運輸變革前,improvements in road construction and sailing had occurred, but shipping heavy freight over land remained expensive, 而變革後,shipping heavy freight over land less expensive.
【選項分析】見上

 
12. 【考點分析】
詞彙題,關鍵在於先判斷,後檢驗的步驟。先理解單詞的意思為習慣於初步確立選項B為答案,然後代入原句進行檢驗: Also, the availability of jobs in railway construction attracted many rural laborers accustomed to seasonal and temporary employment.鐵路建設帶來的工作機遇吸引了農村勞動力,他們習慣於暫時和季節性務工。同義替換無誤,B正確。
【選項分析】
A. (需要)
B. (習慣於)
C. (厭倦)
D. (受鼓勵)
 
13.【考點分析】
本題為插入句子題,依靠被插入句子與前後句子之間的邏輯關係及語言流來進行判斷。
The first steam-powered locomotives were slow but they rapidly improved in speed and carrying capacity.
先抓當前句的關鍵字,方便預判下插入句前後可能是什麼,這樣先答案比較有針對性。比如,容易推出這句話後面的句子應該會講蒸汽機車其速度與承載能力如何提升,或者講其速度和承載能力提升後帶來的好處等等。當然如果讀不太懂,可以尋找一些句間的銜接詞輔助解題。比如以底線部分:
【選項分析】
Parallel rails had long been used in j mining operations to move bigger loads, but horses were still the primary source of power. However, (插入句與這句話沒有轉折關係)the arrival of the steam engine initiated a complete transformation in rail transportation, entrenching and expanding the Industrial Revolution. (這句話就是在講速度與承載能力提升後帶來的好處,為正確答案)■ As transportation improved, distant and larger markets within the nation could be reached, thereby encouraging the development of larger factories to keep pace with increasing sales.increasing sales與這句話的主語Greater productivity構成同義詞,銜接緊密) Greater productivity and rising demands provided entrepreneurs with profits that could be reinvested to take advantage of new technologies to further expand capacity, or to seek alternative investment opportunities.(注意”also”這個詞,這句話講速度與承載能力提升後帶來的第三個好處) Also, the availability of jobs in railway construction attracted many rural laborers accustomed to seasonal and temporary employment.
 
14. 【考點分析】
本題為文章內容小結題,考查的是對文章結構與主旨的把握,需要靠每一個段落的大意來幫助取捨。
本文各個段落的大意為:
一煤多但缺乏有效方式驅動機器
二蒸汽引擎被廣泛用於採煤、紡紗等工業用途
三蒸汽風箱與煉鐵行業變革
四蒸汽引擎引發交通、貿易與就業方面改變
接著來看選項
A選項:意義與原文相反。Historians disregarded the issue of energy as a major element 中的“disregard” 應該為regard. 事實上全文的主旨就是講能源對於工業革命的推動作用
C選項:原文沒有提及“expansion of the Industrial Revolution outside Great Britain”
F選項:原文沒有提及factories could not find enough workers, 全文的最後一句甚至暗示勞動力供應充足,工廠應該更容易招工

(來源:環球教育)

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1從女生的語氣中看出她想找一本書,但是沒找到,所以請求library assistant 的幫助
 
2Assistant: He’s a volcano expert so I thought he might be teaching your class.
這樣答案就非常明顯了。
 
3、據此推斷,女生認為geologyassistant提到的三個科目都簡單。
 
4女生提到要查 Volcano Ruaephu,就是一個特定的火山,而非全部的新西蘭火山
 
5他說是2001年的資料,還有用麼(Is that okay do you think?assistant擔心這個太老了。

2  
 
Lecture-1
 
1There are several techniques being employed tody that could prove useful ensuring the future of the reefs.
這就是lecturetopic sentence 根據他來確定選項。
 
 2Coral is very sensitive to water temperature..........One future possibility is that improved monitoring can help predict when and where bleaching occur.
Monitor只提到了water temperature monitor,所以可以確定第二句的monitor指的什麼。
 
 3教授的話中,出現了 could only be used as the last result, costly, even if it is successful, it still fails to address the ongoing problem.
      所以選項應該是負面的,最後一句與答案對應。
 
 4這個東西 resistant to bleaching,與D項對應。然後是 key points of overall resilience,那前面就是是解釋這些refugia是關鍵的原因
 
 5定位到 mangrove這屬於一個例子,首先確定他是對 reef有益處的,mangrove roots have the ability to absorb and trap sediments of polluted water that flow through them before they enter the ocean. 這就是淨化水源的作用
 
 6在教授的例子中,這些都是 feed on organism that eat corals所以答案很明顯They prevent a reef from growing by preying on young corals.
 
Lecture-2
 
 1Tone quality differs from instrument to instrument. And the question is why. Why does an instrument sound more beautiful than another even if they look identical? Lecture的剩餘部分全部是來解答這個問題,所以確定答案為C
 
 2Today’s violin makers can pretty much replicate all the physical attributes of a Cremonese violin. Physical attributes 指的就是 craftsmanship而且從後文中也可以看出主要是木材的關係,與技藝無關。
 
 3就是生長週期的不同導致了 density differential所以教授討論生長週期就是在解釋為什麼有 density differential
 
4、對於古琴來說,辦法是:turns out the Cremonese violins were made from trees that grew during a little ice age when temperature across Europe is significantly lower than normal. 也就是說 Cremonese 的木頭是在小冰河期時候長出來的,全年氣候都比較寒冷
 
5He basically exposed the wood to a species of fungus, a mushroom........but this particular fungus nibbles away only at certain layers in the wood........as a result, the fungi treated wood approaches the woods of Cremonese wood.. 確定答案選擇A
 
6教授說大多數觀眾沒注意到樂器的問題,女生說是的,她沒留意。所以教授說這些話時為了證明這個觀點是對的
 
 
Conversation-2
 
1Student: would it be okay to focus on something related to agriculture?
很明顯的,這就是討論關於papertopics
 
2 Professor: Hydroponic.........is it a premodern technology?
   這是個反問句,教授的意思是他不是premodern
 
3、學生說文章說Aztec 發明了 hydroponics,教授就解釋去證明後面的話: It appear to be hydroponics, but the plants draw nutrients from soil證明這種技藝不是水培。
 
4Professor: It’s pretty common for a writer to generalize...hydroponics去描述另一種技術,還說作者用這個詞 casually,所以說教授認為這個並不十分準確。
 
5Student: So I guess that all historians might not might describe Chinampas either.
Professor: Good point! Why not looking to that point too?
根據教授的why not,說明教授建議學生把這個也寫進論文
 
 Lecture-3
 
教授說我們要討論Sauropodby comparing fossil records to modern animals 答案就在這兩句中。
 
現在世界上最大的動物住在海裡,海裡食物比陸地上豐富,還有 but for an ocean-going whale, that’s not a problem. 說明陸地大型動物的一些困難可以在海裡解決
 
However, we now know........there were much less plants for sauropods to eat than we thought.
注意轉折詞後面一般存在考點
 
前文中教授說 It is hard to maintain populations時提到的原因是:需要大量食物,生育率低和身體熱量散失困難,所以選ABD是維持,這個不對
 
Professor: We test hypothesis by looking for evidence to support them, then some questions are answered, that may lead to new questions. 然後就是gastroliths的例子,來證明這句話。講完這個例子後還有 the original hypothesis, the stones was found as gastroliths, even though hasn’t been supported, has helped to make new hypothesis, which may eventually lead to the answer. 答案中的useful research指的即是這個
 
從上題的句子中推斷,這些石頭可能不是gastroliths
 
Lecture-4
 
文章講了牛頓,歌德和Runge三個人的理論,說明中心就是 color theory的發展。
 
You’d better use a pure green. 說明用三原色混合的顏色不令人滿意。因此對artist來說用處不大。
 
 
教授說牛頓並沒有建立起完整地color theory,也沒提到primary color,只是說給了一個客觀地科學解釋,所以說牛頓的例子算作背景資訊,其它選項都沒有提到。
 
And in terms of this goal, he wasn’t very successful.對應A選項
Scientist studying romantics and chromatics still marvel his studying. 對應C,對色學還是有一定貢獻的。注意marvel的褒揚態度。
 
Runge’s choice of red, yellow, blue has nothing to do with what we know from modern day chromatics, it had to do with Runge’s complex system of symbolism. ....... Particularly with his experience of quality of lights at various times of the day.: morning noon and night. 與答案對應
 
 
He just happened ...at the same time of the same theory. 注意教授重讀了happened,說明教授覺得這不一定是 happened

 

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