這篇是補習班托福老師上課講義精華加上我自己的筆記整理,分詞構句(Participle Construction)的文法以及英文的時間邏輯搭配(Time Logic)

會特地提出來是因為我個人覺得很實用,對托福寫作跟口說非常有幫助,不過就是要多花時間去熟練,否則半調子一定會出錯的!那還不如不用。

 

分詞構句以過去分詞(Vpp.)以及現在分詞(V-ing)的形式呈現,其功能是精簡句子讓托福寫作文章跟口說內容變優美、高級,才不致一直重複同樣的用字而顯得累贅,分數自然就會提升!

/// 文法功能

當兩個句子缺乏連接詞、一句當中包含兩個動詞或兩個句子連接在一起時,某個動詞必須轉化成分詞,以便讓句子符合文法(何謂符合文法?別忘了復習英文五大句型)

例句:

Over the past 40 years, Mr. Wilson has taught thousands of students, some of them having become internationally known scholars.

 

/// 單純重疊附帶動作

兩個重疊的動作,但不是完全重疊,而是部分重疊。

例句:

Cindy opened the door, finding a man lying on the ground.

 

/// 後續重疊附帶動作

由前一個動作引發後續的一個動作,也可以使用分詞構句。

例句:

Henry was bitten by the ferocious stray dog, crying out loud.

 

/// 補充附帶說明

一個具體動作後面補充一個狀態,互相補充或進一步說明。

例句: 

1. If he had studied harder, staying up late cramming for the external exam, he would not have failed the subject.

2. A successful person is one who is optimitic, always looking at only the bright side of life.

 

/// 因果關係

中文翻譯通常會翻成因為。

例句:

Edison refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if hemade and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine  a projectorfrom him instead of several.

 

最後要注意,分詞構句不要跟關係子句混淆了,我自己用一個簡單的概念劃分: 分詞構句修飾大範圍(前一句整個狀態);關係子句形容一個特定對象(前一句中最後一個東西)。

 

 

而英文時間的邏輯搭配,用途在於掌握好句子時態,讓托福寫作跟口說時思路更清晰,時間邏輯分為五大類:

一. 同時進行的兩個動作

兩個動作在同一時間持續進行,可使用以下句型表示:

/// While S1 + be + V-ing, S2 + be + V-ing = S1 + be + V-ing, while S2 + be + V-ing

/// While S1 + Vpt., S2 + Vpt.

這邊要強調一下,句型只是幫助你去剖析跟理解,完全不需要硬背,任何文法都要看例句學習才會清楚,也才是正確的!

例句:

1. While I was busy cramming for the exam, my little brother was lying on the sofa, acting like a couch potato.

2. I listened carefully, with hot tears welling into my eyes, while she shared with me some beautiful reminiscence in her childhood.

 

 

二. 先後陸續發生、流水帳式

表示先後次序發生,就好比一個人在寫日記時,交代一天所發生的事件(按照時間順序排列),可使用以下句型表示:

/// S + V1,V2, V3, and V4

/// S + V1,V2-ing, V3-ing, and V4-ing

/// When/ As soon as/ On V-ing/ S1 + Vpt., S2 + Vpt.

/// The moment/ minute/ instant S1 + Vpt., S2 + Vpt.

/// Directly/ Immediately/ Instantly/ Once S1 + Vpt., S2 + Vpt.

/// On + V-ing, S + V

/// S1 + had no sooner Vpp. than + S2 + Vpt.

/// S1 + had hardly/ scarcely Vpp. when/ before + S2 + Vpt. (一......就......;當......馬上就......)

/// It was not until... that S + Vpt. = Not until... + Aux.(助動詞) VR + S (直到......才......)

/// Just as/ when S1 + Vpt., S2 + Vpt. (前後動作連接較為緊湊時就用這句)

例句:

1. When he was told by the teacher to repeat a year, he cried out immediately.

2. The moment she got the dear-John letter from her boyfriend, she was beside herself with her eyes coming into tears immediately.

3. The shower had no sooner passed than a beautiful rainbow appeared in the sky.

4. Not until I saved enough money, did I go abroad for further studies.

5. The dog was standing in front of the hot dog stand with his mouth watering.

6. If the parents are stricter, limiting television time for their children, then these negative effects are avoidable.

 

 

三. 強調先後陸續發生

跟2.概念類似,但主要強調兩個在過去發生的動作,但也可以有未來時間的動作,可使用以下句型表示:

/// After/ When S1 + had + Vpp.(先), S2 + Vpt.(後)

/// When S1 + Vpt.(後), S2 + had + Vpp.(先)

/// By + 未來時間(後), S will + have + Vpp.(先)

例句:

1. When it suddenly occurred to her that she had left the passport at home, she had been standing at the checking counter for more than two hours.

2. When/ After she had got all the files thoroughly checked, she gave them to the general manager.

3. By 2012, a well-organized plan will have been established.

 

 

四. 前景(Foreground)-背景(Background)

/// When/ While/ As S1 + be V-ing, S2 + Vpt.

/// S1 + be V-ing, when S2 + Vpt.

/// As S1 + Vpt. S2 + Vpt.

例句:

1. Strike while the iron is hot.

2. While you are away, I will take care of everything for you.

3. As the sun rose, the fog soon disappeared.

4. Last night when I was taking a shower, a strong earthquake suddenly took place.

 

 

五. 兩個動作幾乎同時發生

/// S1 + was on the point/ verge of V-ing when S2 + Vpt./ had + Vpp.

/// S1 + was about to VR when S2 + Vpt./ had Vpp.

例句:

1. I was about to tell you the secret when he came into my room.

2. When you phoned me last night, I was about to watch a baseball game.

3. I tried to catch the point while he was reading the article.

 

 

今天分享的托福文法,準備方式一定要多寫、多唸,光看過別人寫好的範文沒有辦法真正成為自己的東西。

觀摩、分析、練習、修正、複習,不斷重複這四個步驟,才能熟練,並可以試著把內容套入自己的經驗,這樣會比較好記憶,然後活用於托福正式考中。

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