大家都知道托福口很難,但是!英文實力可以透過努力練習跟技巧來彌補,前面一項筆者只能用默默的祝福來鼓勵大家,但後面一項就讓筆者來盡一點棉薄之力,整理出這一篇實用加好用的托福口技巧大全吧!

 

 

如何在托福口考試中做筆記

 

 

眾所周知,為了模擬北美大學課堂的學術氣氛和學生在校園生活的方方面面,托福考試的口部分首次允許考生做課堂筆記(筆記考完要上交,但筆記不算分)、並要求考生能發表自己的意見和看法,而且必須具備對教授推薦的參考書寫出讀書報告、闡明自己觀點的能力以及其他處理校園生活中可能遇到的各種情況的能力。本文擬對托福口考試(包括獨立口任務和綜合口任務)中如何做筆記的問題做深人地分析和探討。

 

 

Note-taking in the Independent Task

 

      該部分要求考生就某一自己熟悉的話題闡述自己的觀點。一類問題是自由回答間題(Free-choice Response),

 

如:If you could have any job in the world, what would it be? Use details to support your. response

 

    另一類是選擇類問題(Paired-choice Response),

 

如:Do you like to try new kinds of food or eat the same kind of food all the time? Use details and examples to support your response,

 

    準備時間為15秒,回答問題時間為45秒。問題會被朗讀出來,且同時出現在螢幕上。考生可以不用理會電腦的朗讀,迅速讀完問題。這樣可以爭取大概5秒,那麼在這大約20,考生可在草稿紙上迅速記下自己所要表達的關鍵資訊。這裡記筆記的方法為“TST表格”。

 

    TST ( Topic-Supporting ideas—Transitions

 

意思是考生須在草稿紙上用一到兩個詞寫下欲表達的

Topic(主題)Supporting ideas(分論點)Transitions(信號詞)

下面試舉一例:

 

Question:

 

  Where would you want to be professionally in ten years? Use details to support your response.     

 

考生應迅速在紙上寫下“own bus...”、“master”、“work com...”、“start”等資訊見以下TST( Topic—Supporting ideas—Transitions )表格。

 

Topic statement:

 

  *own bus... (I would like to own my own business) Supporting ideas:

 

  ( How I will work toward owning my business)

 

 * master (Will get master's in business )

 

 *work com... (Will work in company while planning my business)

 

 * start (Will start my own business when I am ready)

 

 * Transitions: 10 next because 3 within 10 y (可用y代替 years)

 

 

Sample Answer

 

    In ten years I would like to win an import business of my own. Next year, I will be starting a master's program in business with a specialization in entrepreneurship. I will be getting this degree because I hope to start my own business and make it successful some day. After I finish my master's degree three years from now, I will most likely take a position in another company for a few years to make some money and to spend some time planning my own business. Within ten years, I hope to own my own company and be on the way to making it a success.

 

 

 

再舉一例:

 

  Question:

 

 Sometimes students have to write papers. Sometimes they have to give oral presentations. Which activity do you think is better for students, and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.

 

   考生應迅速在紙上寫下“pap”、“strong read write exams”、“more time think deeply”等信息。見以下TST( Topic—Supporting ideas—Transitions )表格:

 

 

  Topic: pap (writing papers is better for students) Supporting ideas: (Why writing papers is better) 

 

* strong read write exams (need strong writing skills for reading and writing and prepare for exams)

 

 * more time think deeply(show understanding for more time to explain and think deeply)

 

 

Transitions: firstly because, so also Sample Answer

 

      I think writing papers is better for students. Firstly we need to develop strong writing skills. We go to school mainly to learn reading and writing, so we need a lot of practice. Examinations require a lot of writing, so writing papers is good reparation. Also, I think writing is a better way to show that I understand. When I write a paper, I can think deeply because I have more time to explain my ideas.

 

 

 

為了給讀者更多機會練習使用“TST表格”,特提供一下6個問題供大家練習。

 

 

  1. Describe a place that you consider to be beautiful. Explain why certain qualities of this place make it beautiful. Include details and examples to support your explanation. )

 

  2. Some people relax by staying home. Others relax by going out. Which type of relaxation is better for your and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.-  

 

  3. Describe an occasion when you were surprised. What happened to you, and why did you feel surprised? Include details and examples in your explanation.

 

   4. Some students prepare for tests by studying alone. Others prepare for tests by studying with other students or a tutor. Which study method do you think is better, and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.)

 

    5.What type of home would you like to live in? Describe the characteristics of such a home and explain why you would like to live there. Include details and examples in your explanation.

 

   6. Some people exercise early in the morning. Others exercise in the afternoon or evening. Which time of day do you think is better for exercising and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.

 

 

 

 

Note-taking in the Integrated Tasks

 

 

1.  Reading—Listening—Speaking 

 

    3題和第4題以試題中的讀和聽力材料為基礎,要求考生回答相關問題。即ReadingListeningSpeaking,具體步驟是首先要求考生在45內閱讀一篇短文,一般只含一個段落,隨後短文隱去,播放一段與短文相關的對話或課堂演講,其長度大約為1分半鐘(比listening section中的材料篇幅要短)。

 

    最後,要求考生根據先前讀的短文和所聽到的材料回答相關問題,考生有30秒鐘的準備時間,然後進行60秒鐘的回答。而第5題和第6題要求考生先聽一段聽力材料,然後回答相關問題。即Listening-Speaking,聽力材料通常有一段是情景對話,另一段是課堂演講,其長度大約為1分半鐘。

 

    考生有20秒鐘的準備時間,之後進行60秒鐘的回答。在綜合口任務裡,你所需要記筆記的容就是在讀短文和聽材料的過程中記下材料中的“main points”、“examples”、“reasons”等等。

 

而是否能很快識別“信號詞”(Signal Words)成為其中的關鍵。

 

“信號詞”(Signal WordsTransitions)是我們用來“追蹤”話人的思路的辭彙,它就像“路標”一樣指引著旅行者的方向。有了信號詞,我們就知道話人何時要舉例子,何時要下結論,何時要解釋原因等等

 

 

(1信號詞

 

 *信號詞的分類

種類

例詞

所表達的含義

時間順序

Time- Sequence

first, later, next, finally, before, after, now, previously, last, then, when, immediately,  formerly, subsequently, presently, initially, ultimately meanwhile

 

話人想按時間順序敍述事件

舉例 Example

for example, such as,  for instance, illustrate

 

舉例子明:

 

 Black English used to be considered simply poor English until linguists realized that the so-called errors were actually consistent alternative  grammatical forms, some of which originated in African linguistic patterns. For example, the word "be"

列舉  Enumeration

and, too, finally, furthermore, first(ly), second, third, last, another, next

 

話人羅列觀點

有時想暗示各觀點不同的重要性):

 

 Firstly, I would like to talk about classical music and its representative composers. Next I would like to talk about Jazz music and some influential albums in the history of Jazz. Finally, I will move on to pop music in the last century.

補充  Continuation

also, in addition, and,  further, another, as well as

 

話人在繼續討論同一話題,並欲補充更多的資訊:

 

 A computer is often called a “thinking machine,” and in many ways it is just that.  Computers perform difficult and timesaving mathematical computations, as well as problems in logic and reasoning. In addition, computers run other machines and answer questions. Also, they are used to guide astronauts on take-off.

比較或反差  Comparison or Contrast

比較類

 

like, likewise, as, similarly, at the same time, as  well as, both, all, in  comparison,

 

 

  反差類

 

on the other hand,  in contrast, despite, nevertheless,  

 

yet, instead, rather,  notwithstanding, though,  regardless, unlike, although,  even though, whereas but, in  spite of, on the contrary, however

 

 

話人想出一個與之前的觀點相同,不甚相同甚至是相反的觀點:

 

The sex of the instructor affected the extent of active student participation. In classes taught by  men with roughly equal proportions of male and female students, male students were responsible for about 75% of all  class discussion. Similarly, with women as instructors, female student participation  rose from 25% to 42%; in contrast, male  participation slipped from 75% to 58%.

強調  Emphasis

important to note, most,  above all, especially valuable, a central issue, especially relevant, should be noted, the most substantial issue, remember that, a major event, the principal item, pay particular attention to, the chief factor, most of all, a significant factor, a primary concern, a key feature, the main value

 

話人想最重要最核心容,話人用這些詞引起聽眾的注意:

  

Although the resources of our world are

limited, the wants of people are not. Indeed, one of the most important assumptions of economics is that the total human wants can never be satisfied. No matter how much we have, we seem to want more. As people's income increase, so does their desire for more and better goods and services.

因果  Cause-Effect

because, accordingly, for this reason, hence, resulting, as a result, o, then, thus, therefore, since, consequently

 

話人欲表現兩個或多個事物之間的聯繫,尤其是它們之間的因果關係:

 

 Atherosclerosis is the result of the buildup of fat, fibrin, parts of dead cells, and  calcium on the inside of the arteries. No one knows what causes this disease, but a number of things can speed its development. These include smoking cigarettes and eating animal fat and cholesterol. Others include age, hypertension, diabetes, stress, heredity, and sex (males have more heart attacks).

總結  Summary

thus, in short, to conclude, in  brief, in the end, in summary,  to reiterate, in conclusion, to  sum up, finally, therefore,  thus, as already stated

 

話人欲復述或總結之前的話語:

 

Euthanasia is defined as mercy killing,  either by the sick people themselves or by their relatives or close friends. One  controversial doctor is a strong proponent of this act: Dr. Jack Krevorkian. Dr.  Krevorkian has publicly admitted to giving  assistance to people who have committed  suicide. As a result, he has been called a saint by some, a murderer by others.

定義  Definition

define, is defined as, known as, that is, the term means, we mean, we can state, we refer to

 

話人欲給術語下定義:

 

Our country has been obsessed with youth for far too many years. Age has been defined only as a decline from a peak of youth. Age is a fate worse than death. Negative stereotypes of older people are reinforced daily in the popular media, which contain very few examples of anyone 60 or older doing anything active or dynamic in society.

 

 

*信號詞識別練習

 

 

   大家具有迅速識別信號的能力,提供以下兩則練習,大家做則練習時要在儘量短的時間完成。

 

  將下表中的信號適當的橫

 

for example

differ consequently

therefore

alike 

most significant

moreover

as a result

however

most important

in addition

such as

but

for example

similarly

also

just as 

especially valuable

 

Emphasis ___________________________________________________________

 

Addition (Continuation)_____________________________________________

 

Comparison__________________________________________________________

 

Contrast____________________________________________________________

 

Illustration (Example)______________________________________________

 

 

請大家儘快劃出下列短文中的信號詞。

   短文後的數位暗示該短文中信號詞的數量。

 

  *One of the most persistent desires of human beings has been to indulge in mood-hanging and pleasure-giving practices. For instance, diverse cultures have engaged in the drinking of alcoholic beverages of all descriptions. But as with most pleasure, overindulgence can be harmful to oneself and others. Also, not everyone agrees that drinking or using other mood modifiers should be an accepted pleasure.

 

(4 signal words)

 

* Energy is used to cause chemical changes. For example, a chemical change occurs in the electroplating of metals when electrical energy is passed through a salt solution in which the metal is submerged. A chemical change also occurs when radiant energy from the sun is utilized by plants in the process of photosynthesis. Moreover, as we say, a chemical change occurs when heat causes mercuric oxide to decompose. Chemical changes are often used to produce energy rather than new substances. The heat or thrust generated during the combustion of fuels is more important than the products formed. (5 signal words)]

 

 

* But even those pre-agricultural people who had fairly stationary living sites did not develop in civilizing ways comparable to the farmers. Agriculture probably required a far greater discipline than did any form of food collecting. Seeds had to be planted at certain seasons, some protection had to be given to the growing plants and animals, harvests had to be reaped. stored, and divided. Thus we might argue that it was neither leisure time nor a sedentary existence that produced great changes in human culture. The cause was rather the more rigorous demands associated with an agricultural way of life. Humanity was changing plants and animals to suit its needs, and living in close relation with plants and animals was changing humans way of life.  (9 signal words)

 

 

 

(2)讀(Reading)短文時做筆記

 

    在第3和第4題中你會碰到兩篇讀短文,你所需要記筆記的容就是在讀短文的過程中記下材料中的“main point”以及“examples”和“reasons”等等。切忌寫下過多的細節,或為了記筆記而忽略了中心思想。見下例(注意加黑處的信號詞):

 

 

Isaac Asimov

 

  Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) was an amazing author who wrote an astounding amount of material on an even more astounding variety of subjects. His literary studies included line-by-line analyses of all of the play of Shakespeare; his historical research included works on the history of Greece, the Roman Empire, England, and France; he also wrote well-researched tomes on physics, chemistry, and astronomy. What he is most likely best known for today, however, is science fiction: his Foundation series on a galactic empire inspired by Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and the / Robot series about a future society where humans and robots coexist. In total, Asimov wrote more than 500 books on this wide variety of subjects.

 

 

從信號詞我們知道:

 

 TOPIC OF READING PASSAGE: author Isaac Asimov

 

  Main points about Asimov

 * wrote a huge amount of material (more than 500 books);

 *wrote on a wide variety of topics (literary analysis, history, physics, chemistry, astronomy, science fiction)

 

 

以下是兩篇短文,迅速識別出其信號,並做出筆

 

  The Dead Sea

 

   The Middle Eastern body of water called Bahr Lut in Arabic is known as the Dead Sea in English. This body of water is said to be "dead" not because it is the dried-out remnant to survive in it. The Dead Sea is a landlocked body of water with the Jordan River as its source and no outlet. Its high salt content, which results from the rapid evaporation due to the area s extremely high temperatures, makes it the saltiest body of water on Earth.

 

 

Polling

 

   Polling is, of course, a survey of certain people to find out how they feel about an issue or about a candidate for a government post in an election. Polling involves, simply, asking people how they feel about an issue or a person and them tallying the results. When it is not feasible to contact everyone involved to find out what each person thinks because there are, for example, too many people to contact each one individually, then a representative sample of people can be polled and the results of the representative sample can be attributed to the population as a whole.

 

 

 

(3) 在聽對話或講座時做筆記(Listening

 

      在聽講座或對話時,你需要關注主要觀點(major points)以及為了支撐其觀點所使用的例子(examples)和原因(causes)

 

Listening Passage:

 

  (Professor): Now I'm sure you're all wondering how Asimov managed to write so much. Well, the simple answer's that he did almost nothing except writing because that's what he was driven to do.

 

  Asimov's normal routine was to spend time, a lot of time, writing every day. He usually got up at 6 o'clock in the morning; he was at work writing by 7:30 in the morning, and he wrote until 10 o'clock in the evening. That's a lot of time to spend writing. This desire to spend so much time writing prompted Asimov himself to say "Writing is my only interest. Even speaking is an interruption."

 

 

TOPIC OF LISTENING PASSAGE:

 

 how Asimov wrote so much

 

   Main points about topic:

 

 * Asimov wrote from 7: 30 in the morning to 10 o'clock in the evening.

 * Asimov said,” Writing is my only interest."

 

 

(4)整合筆記,最終開口(Speaking

 

 

  以上我們討論過如何在讀文章和聽材料時做筆記,現在我們已經擁有兩份筆記,可以開始答題了,不過答題以前,需要明確以下幾點:

 

  *你的準備時間為30秒,回答時間為1分鐘,回答須同時包括所聽的材料和所讀文章中的資訊

 

  *在答題時不要涉及個人觀點,不要例如“I think”之類的話。你的回答應該僅僅跟所讀的文章和所聽的材料有關

  

   *Reading-Listening-Speaking部分中,可能會問你以下幾個向題

 

復述對話中所涉及到的一個觀點

總結話人得出某個觀點的原因

描述聽力材料中教授談及的問題

解釋聽力材料與讀材料的聯繫

 

   *此部分的評分標準

 

聽力和讀材料中提煉出相關資訊

用聽力和讀材料中的適當細節和觀點答題

觀點表達前後連貫一致

表達清晰易懂

 

 *30秒鐘的準備時間中,請務必仔細讀問題的題幹,聽完材料後查閱閱讀材料和聽力材料的筆記,提煉主要觀點和出支撐論點的23個分論點。

 

 *回答時間為1分鐘,時間應該完全用。語速適中,切記不要著急,請留意時間,你有20秒來展開每一個分論點。

 

 *表達必須連貫一致,符合邏輯順序,適當使用Signal Words, 如下:.

 

 *如欲介紹兩個材料中的主要觀點

 

 

The man's opinion is that...

The woman believes that...

According to the lecture...

The professor made the point that...

The reading states that...

 

 

請看以下例子:

 

例1:Reading  FUNGI AND PLANT DISEASE0

 

Of all the organisms responsible for diseases in plants, fungi cause the most problems. Although a fungus is technically a small plant, it cannot make its own food and therefore survives by being a parasite-living off other plant hosts. A common fungus, southern blight, affects many vegetables, including tomatoes and potatoes. It appears as a fuzzy white growth on the plant's stem near soil level. When the plant is infected with the blight, it wilts and then dies. The fungus may spread to the soil, where it can survive for years.

 

 

Listening and Speaking

 

  (Narrator) Now listen to part of a lecture in a botany class.

 

  (Professor)

 

    Of all the organisms responsible for diseases in plants, fungi cause the most problems. Although a fungus is technically a small plant, it cannot make its own food and therefore survives by being a parasite-living off other plant hosts. A common fungus, southern blight, affects many vegetables, including tomatoes and potatoes. It appears as a fuzzy white growth on the plant’s stem near soil level. When the plant is infected with the blight, it wilts and then dies. The fungus may spread to the soil, where it can survive for years. Because a fungus can survive for years in soil, the best way to control such a disease is to remove and destroy the infected plants, as well as six centimeters of soil around them. Avoid spreading disease by washing off your tools and your shoes when you go from an infected area to a healthy part of your garden. At the end of the gardening season, do a complete cleanup.

 

   You can also keep disease away by rotating crops. Crop rotation can be effective in preventing soil-borne disease, especially when the disease is caused by a fungus that likes specific plants. For example, the fungus that causes southern blight is attracted to tomatoes. Once this fungus is present, it will thrive in the soil from year to year, attacking the tomato plants.

 

    With crop rotation, you don't grow the same plant in the same place for at least three consecutive years. So, for example, if you grow tomatoes one year, the next year you shouldn't plant tomatoes in the same place. By planting something else the second and third years, any tomato-loving fungus that survived the winter wouldn't have any tomato plants to feed on. With three years between planting tomatoes, the fungus will die off from lack of a host plant.

 

 

 

Question (Narrator)

 

  Explain ways that a gardener can control plant disease caused by a fungus, and explain why these methods work.

 

  (Preparation Time : 30 seconds  Response Time: 60 seconds )

 

   Here are two notes that two students took during the sample lecture. Add other words and phrases that you think are important to remember about the lecture.

 

 

Student

Student 2

 

fungus, soil, years

control fungus

 

destroy plants, soil around

remove 6 cm soil

wash tools, shoes

 

 

crop rotation

specific, tomato blight

fungus cause disease

crop rotation

soil-year to year

 

tomatoes

3 years

don't plant same place

1 tomato

2 other plants

fungus die off

 

fungus die, lack host

 

 

 

 

Response by Student

 

   A gardener can control plant disease caused by a fungus. One way is to destroy sick plants and also destroy the soil around plants. This method works because a fungus lives in the soil. Another way is to wash tools and shoes. This will avoid spreading the disease. Another way is to use crop rotation for a tomato blight. Don't plant tomatoes in the same place every year. This method works because the fungus will die off. The reason is there are no tomato plants to eat.

 

 

Response by Student 2 

 

   A fungus kills plants because it lives in the soil. You can control fungus by removing infected plants and six centimeters of the soil. Also, crop rotation can control plant disease caused by a fungus. The fungus lives in soil year to year, so crop rotation is three years. For example, plant tomatoes in the first year. In the second and third year, plant other plants. Crop rotation causes the fungus to die because it lacks a host plant.

 

 

    兩位學生都較圓滿地完成了任務,不但提供了兩個材料中的相關資訊發展觀點時也使用了適當的細節,而且表達前後連貫一致。聽完這個材料後你所做的筆記應該類似於下面的文字:

 

2: Listening (Woman) Hi, Brett.

(Man) Hi, Karen. 

(Woman) You don't look too happy, Brett. Is anything the matter?

 

(Man) You can tell I' m upset just by looking at me?  

 

(Woman) Yeah, it's pretty obvious. You want to tell me what's bothering you?

 

(Man) Well, it's that I m having trouble in my economics class, and I just talked to the professor. She didn't seem too sympathetic.

 

(Woman) She didn't ? What's the problem?

 

(Man) Well, it's that I'm on the baseball team.  

 

(Woman) I know. I've seen you play. But what does that have to do with your economics class?  

 

(Man) It's the away games. That's the problem. The away games are all on the weekend, but usually when we’re traveling to another school for a weekend game, we leave on Friday. The team bus usually leaves about noon on Friday.

 

(Woman) And that has something to do with your economics class?  

 

(Man) Yeah, my economics class meets on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, in the afternoon!  

 

(Woman) I see. So you miss your economics class once in a while on Friday afternoons?

 

(Man) Not just once in a while. It's been every Friday for the last four weeks.

 

(Woman) And you talked to your economics professor about this?

 

(Man) Yes, I did. And I told her why I missed class on Fridays.

 

(Woman) But she wasn't very sympathetic you said.

 

(Man) She wasn't sympathetic at all.  

 

(Woman) I think that's because you've missed so many classes... Listen, have you thought about switching to a different section of the class? I think there's another section of the same class on Tuesdays and Thursdays.   

 

(Man) I hadn't thought about that. Maybe that would be something to consider, since my professor's not at all happy that I miss class so much.

 

 

聽完了這個材料後你所做的筆記應該類似於下面的文字

 

TOPIC OF LISTENING PASSAGE:

 

    problem man is having with economics class"

 

 Main points about problem: 

 

* Man is missing economics class on Fridays because he is on the baseball team.

* Woman suggests changing to a different section of economics class that does not meet on Fridays.

 

 

 

這道題的問題如下:

 

Question

 

How does the woman react to the man's problem?

 

用以上的筆記,很容易回答這個問題,別忘了使用一些信號詞來組織自己的回答:

 

Sample Answer

 

    In this listening passage, two students discuss a problem the man has with his economics class. First, the man explains that he has the problem that he is missing his economics class on Fridays because he is on the baseball team and he travels to away games on Fridays. Then after the woman understands this problem, she suggests that he change to a different section of economics class, one that does not meet on Fridays.

 

備考建議 

 

辭彙準備:建立流暢表達所需要的辭彙,尤其是信號詞。信號詞的恰當使用會使你的表達更誠暢,更連貫。 

 

發音準備:提高發音的同時,尤其要主要單詞重音和語音語調。

 

錄製準備:將自己的聲音錄下來,聽一聽有什麼問題。

 

筆記準備:平時多聽、多看大學講座、紀錄片和英語新聞,邊聽邊做筆記,儘量抓住材料的主題。

 

托福口做筆記技巧分享

 

    托福口考試筆記該如何開始做?在托福口考試要求考生們的能力有許多,其中不可避免地會遇到復述、總結短文或錄音中容的環節,高效的記筆記就變成了每位元考生不得不鍛煉的一種能力。

 

   大多數考生在記托福口筆記的過程中會覺得兩個方面難以突破,

 

第一,書寫容太多,大多是不實用的資訊,不方便梳理和提取重要資訊;

第二,頁面不清晰,相對有些亂,口表達是思路也隨著潦草的筆記混亂起來。

 

接下來告訴考生一些托福口筆記技巧。

 

   托福口做筆記技巧一記什麼

 

    首先,永久不變的宗旨是,聽都沒聽懂,記什麼記啊!

 

 

    口譯專家羅贊(Rozan)曾經明確地指出筆記的原則是記錄源語所表達出的意思,而不是僅僅把源語中的單詞羅列在紙上(Note ideas, not words!)。那麼,怎樣來記大意呢?

    我們可以把源語中的主題詞、關鍵字以及邏輯線索詞。

    其中,主題詞關鍵字常為句子中的主要成分,即主(subject,S)謂(常為謂語動 詞,verb,V)賓(object,O)。所以我們可以把關鍵句中的主語謂語動詞賓語記錄下來。

 

 

例如,TPO1 第三題的聽力中有這樣一句話

 

“You didn’t know? An anonymous donor is paying the bill for most of the sculpture.”

(你不知道嗎?一位匿名的捐贈者將負責這 尊雕像的大部分費用。)

 

我們聽到這句話後需要記錄的容為“An anonymous donor pay the bill (sculpture)”,甚至這裡的bill 都可以用符號表示,其實就是金錢唄,可以用¥$等等來表示。

 

    到金錢符號,符號的記錄也是有很多技巧的,我們還需要記錄一些包括數位、專有名詞這樣的資訊。

 

    TPO2 第五題中, 女學生和教授在討論他們的出行計畫和另一位教授的布展計畫時,分別談到了出行所需時 間“a 3 day trip”、布展時間“spend next week”、出行日期等資訊“we don’t leave until Wednesday”。這些都是重要的資訊,需要記錄下來。

    總之,怎麼簡單,怎麼節省時間,就怎麼去記但是前提是必須得聽懂,而且回頭看筆記也得看懂。

 

 

 

  托福口筆記做技巧二怎麼記

 

    解答了“托福口筆記記什麼”的問題,接下來老師教大家托福口筆記應該怎麼記。其實,考生在記筆記過程中經常發現兩個問題:

 

第一,書寫容太多,並不方便記錄;

第二,頁面不清晰,相對有些亂

 

    那麼怎樣才能解決這兩個問題呢?首先,可以通過縮略書寫的技巧解決第一個問題;其次,可以通過設計筆記排列方式來解決第二個問題。這些就是通常情況下的口譯筆記小技巧了,而這些技巧對於考生來可能會有很大幫助。

 

 

 

  托福口做筆記技巧三縮略書寫

 

1. 縮略

 

    縮略書寫就是用儘量少的字元來表達源語的含義。這個概念,考生應該都不會太陌生。 為什麼這麼呢,來看這幾個例子:

 

① Uni.; Dep.

② BTW; ASAP; PS  

③ BJ; SH   

 

上面這些東西都是什麼意思?我想大部分考生都明白:  

 

大學(university);系、學院(department)   

順帶一提(by the way);儘快(as soon as possible),附言(postscript)  

北京(Beijing);上海(Shanghai)

 

    這些就是縮略書寫最為常見和廣泛應用的例子,被稱為縮略(abbreviation)。在遇到一個超過 5 個字母的單詞時,我們用這個單詞中的某幾個字元(一般不超過 4 )來代 替這個單詞,就是我們要強調縮略的概念。

 

經過縮略,上面 TPO例子中的筆記可以為: ano. donor pay scul.

 

 

考生可以在備考的時候,留意考試時的高頻詞,並聯繫使用縮略的方法來記筆記。

 

例如:

 

professor prof.

programme prog.

assignment asg.

including inc.

excluding exc.

reason R.

because bec.

possible psb

problem prob.

solution Sl.

conception conc.

definition def.

example eg

science sci.

computer pc

schedule schd

conflict conf. 等。

 

    這些縮略可能會因人而異, 希望考生自己在備考過程中留意總結,熟練使用自己的縮略方式。但是建議大家記下相應單詞的輔音字母而不是記下這個單詞的前幾個字母。

 

 

2. 符號

 

 

    除了用略的方式來減少筆上的工作量之外,考生可以在筆程中運用符號(symbol)來幫助記錄個概念,考生應該熟悉,來看幾個例子:

 

① +;- 

② ×;÷  

③ =;≈  

④ ≠;≡  

⑤ >;<

;;∷  

;↓  

;↘   

 

 

當然還有一些簡單的數學符號:   

 

① +(加、還有、包括、和、以及);-(減、沒有、除去、不包括)  

② ×(乘、也可以表示錯誤、不同意、行不通等含義);÷()   

③ =(等於);≈(約等於、與„„類似)

(不等於);(全等於)   

⑤ >(大於、優於、超過、重要于、優先於);<(小於、劣於、少於、比不上)  

(因為、由於、原因);(所以、於是);∷(成比例)  

(上升、增多、加強);(下降、減少、削弱)   

(逐漸上升、逐漸增多、逐漸加強);(逐漸下降、逐漸減少、逐漸削弱)

 

 

 

    像這些數學符號、標點符號、其他常用的科學符號甚至是考生自己管用的筆記符號都可以拿來代替一些單詞或片語。例如,考生可以用標點符號中的冒號來表明某人、某機構了什麼或發佈了什麼聲明”。

 

 

 

   托福口做筆記技巧四筆記排列方式

 

    有一些托福考場分發的草稿紙是豎向折疊的A4紙,這種紙張很方便與豎向記筆記,而且節省空間。建議大家講對折後的A4紙橫向放,形成一個橫向的長條,然後豎向縮寫。

 

    由於符號本身就會讓格式看上去不整齊,所以各位考生用符號記筆記的時候一定要注意筆記的排列方式,否則,很容易使自己的筆記看起來像一團亂麻,理不清條理。

 

我們在記筆記的時候應該注意三個方面:

 

(1)豎向書寫。  

(2)縮進書寫。   

(3)區分邏輯線錯詞相應

 

 豎向書寫就是指一行只有一個意群的容,如果這個意群結束了,就要另起一行記錄新的意群中的容。

 

 

 

關於口第一題和第二題的備考意見,速成班!

 

基本只需要準備一個範本

現在 開始。

最喜歡什麼書?哈利波特
最喜歡什麼電影?哈利波特
最喜歡的地方?電影院 因為可以看哈利波特
休息的時候幹嘛?看哈利波特
印象最深的人?一個朋友 他介紹我看哈利波特
印象最深刻的時刻 ? 第一次看哈利波特
最喜歡的room? 臥室 因為我經常在臥室看哈利波特
最重要的發明?電影 可以看哈利波特

喜歡大城市 小城市? 大城市 可以看哈利波特
喜歡一個人住還是和室友? 和室友 可以一起看哈利波特
喜歡寫信還是emailemail 可以互相分享各種attachment 比如哈利波特


基本能覆蓋 80% 其他的大家可以分類看下 
不需要積累特別多topic 

 

最喜歡的節日。 電影節,可以看哈利波特
如果可以見一個明星。 哈利波特
最喜歡的運動,魁地奇 哈利波特
喜歡在家辦公還是在辦公室,在家 因為我是哈利迷 我家裝修得和哈利波特一樣
家人朋友給我的意見, 朋友介紹我看哈利波特 英語變得炸天
你喜歡單獨學習還是group study group study 因為哈利波特裡面那三個人是一個group 他們最終戰勝大boss
應該選擇好找工作的專業還是自己喜歡的。自己喜歡的,我現在在電影業工作,因為我喜歡哈利波特,
若果有一大筆錢。 我會去visit 哈利波特的拍攝地

希望大家能找到自己的哈利波特。。。。

 

不要真的用哈利波特啊!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

 

 

備考經驗八招助你提高托福口技巧

 

    很多同學都想在短期提高新托福口成績,當然這也不是不可能,但有網友根據實際經驗整理了一些小技巧,考生們可借鑒參考並納為己用。

 

 

  提示1

  Practice wherever you can and whenever you can Any practice is goodwhether you speak to someone who is a native English speaker or not

  隨時隨地練習口

 

  提示2

  Its important to build your confidence. If possible use simple English sentence structure that you know is correctso that you can concentrate ongetting your message across

  表達清晰為主,句型多樣化為次

 

  提示3

  Try to experiment with the English you know Use words and phrases you knowing new situations Native English speakers are more likely to correct you if you use the wrong word than if you use the wrong grammar Experimenting with vocabulary is a really good way of getting feedback

  大膽運用所掌握的辭彙,不要過分拘泥於語法。

 

  提示4

  Try to respond to what people say to you You can often get clues to what people think by looking at their body language Respond to them in a natural way

  透過身體語言理解對方意思並作出回應。

 

  提示5

  Try not to translate from or into your own language This takes too much time and will make you more hesitant

  儘量避免翻譯

 

  提示6

  If you forget a word do what native English speakers do all the timeand say things that fillthe conversation This is better than being completely silent Try using um or erif you forget the word

  遇到不知該如何表達的時候,用一些常用詞表示自己正在思考。

 

  提示7

  Dont speak too fast Its important tousle a natural rhythm when speaking English But if you speak too fast it will be difficult for people to understand you

  語速不要過快

 

  提示8

  Try to relax when you speak When you speak English at a normal speedyou will discover that most of the pronunciation skills such as linking between words will happen automatically

  話時儘量放鬆,讓發音流利順暢。

 

  最後溫情提示

  Dont be shy to speak The more you practice the more confident you will become

 

 

 

托福口辭彙 多練是硬道理!

 

    辭彙是托福考試匯總最基本也是最重要的,但是不同的單項辭彙的積累方法是不同的,對於托福口部分,多多練習才是硬道理!下面,天道小編給大家介紹相關容,供大家參考。

  托福口根本是考我們能否運用英語有效地溝通交流的能力,最重要的就是我們能把自己的想法運用英語流利無誤地表達出來。托福口強調對於已給材料的處理以及總結轉述等綜合能力。所以可見托福口需要考生能把獲取的資訊、自己的想法表達出來。

 

  在我們英語表述當中,很多人不會的無非就是兩大塊問題:辭彙+語法

 

    辭彙量的缺乏肯定會導致你語言表述不出來或是不準確,再或者較為簡單單調。語法掌 握不好會引起病句或根本無法連詞成句的情況。所以我們在平時要想提高英語,尤其是想要提高托福考試的應試能力,不管對於托福考試的哪一個單項,辭彙+語法 都是最基本的,也是最重要的。

 

  很多同學都已經意識到了辭彙量的重要性,平時也都有背單詞的習慣,但是你們背單詞的方法真的對了嘛?真的適用於托福口的學習嗎?大多數同學背單詞都是拿著本單書,看英文把托福口辭彙的中文意思記住就可以了,每天背上個5080個都有,確實這種方法對於做讀看文章比較有效。可是對於托福口, 就不那麼適用了。因為托福口你是要會把這些單詞給用上的,要能夠說得出帶一個語境當中的

 

    所以在背口單詞時,可以不用先急著追求量,一天就背 20個單詞。但是這20個單詞,一定要記住它的發音、詞性、搭配、用法等,去看看例句結合著一定的語境記憶。等到你能真正看著中文能用它造一句話這個 單詞才叫做會背了。是不是挺麻煩呢?但是沒辦法,如果你一直只看英文記中文你永遠也不會把這個單詞用上去。

 

 

 

突破托福口考試全攻略

 

    托福口被大家視為最大出國難關,原因大致有三:

 

1.從小到大英語課上幾乎都沒有針對口進行過練習,不出來

2.不知道自己發音、語言是不是道,沒有信心

3.面對電腦感覺很奇怪,會很緊張

 

   首先要認識到,其實托福口考試是和聽力一樣,在大家出國後的日常生活中用處最大,最重要。相對來講單純的口比其他部分簡單很多,這就是為什麼ETS要在口部分融入讀和聽力。大家大可不必那麼緊張口,試想如果那些題是讓你寫出來而不是出來,你還會覺得有這麼難麼?關鍵還是在於心態,突破了心理障礙,口能力就已經能上一個大臺階了。

 

   英語就是一個交流工具,就像我們平時交流中文一樣,老外的是英文,就這麼點區別。所以,就算在考場上,也全當是和一個老外探討一下問題,不要太緊張。

   其次,很多同學的發音不太標準,這可能和大家自身的口音有關,也不是什麼大問題。最簡單的方法就是跟讀

    

     你可以挑選一些美國電視劇、電影什麼的,跟著演員一句一句的鸚鵡學舌,他怎麼你就怎麼學。在美國,專業演員都是經過特殊發音學習的,由專業老師指導他們糾正口音。你看,老外也有口音問題,你還那麼在意自己的語音毛病麼?

   但是要注意一點,別選一些太老舊的片子,也別選什麼西部片村片,最好挑以大都市生活或者校園生活為題材的片子,要不學了半天滿嘴稀奇古怪的美國口音也不太好。

 

   第三點,也是大家都很容易拿不准的一點,是關於托福的機考形式對口的影響。有的同學一面對電腦就不自覺地緊張,都不會話了。對這一點,其實電腦後面也是有個人在聽你話,你可以在演講時當聽眾是白菜,為什麼不能當電腦是個人呢?的確,忘掉那是台電腦吧,那樣你一定能發揮出更好的水準的。

 

   關於托福口,大家一定要謹記一點,口是與人交流的工具,一定要在備考時儘量多的和別人互相交流溝通。就像開車,只要熟練了就會變得像是自然而然的事情,多多練,到一定階段你腦子裡想的話自然就從嘴裡出來了。

 

 

最後祝大家考試順利,早日成才。

 

 

資料來源:寄托小站

圖片來源:cc0

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