這篇是補習班托福老師上課講義精華加上我自己的筆記整理,分詞構句(Participle Construction)的文法以及英文的時間邏輯搭配(Time Logic)




/// 文法功能



Over the past 40 years, Mr. Wilson has taught thousands of students, some of them having become internationally known scholars.


/// 單純重疊附帶動作



Cindy opened the door, finding a man lying on the ground.


/// 後續重疊附帶動作



Henry was bitten by the ferocious stray dog, crying out loud.


/// 補充附帶說明



1. If he had studied harder, staying up late cramming for the external exam, he would not have failed the subject.

2. A successful person is one who is optimitic, always looking at only the bright side of life.


/// 因果關係



Edison refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if hemade and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine  a projectorfrom him instead of several.


最後要注意,分詞構句不要跟關係子句混淆了,我自己用一個簡單的概念劃分: 分詞構句修飾大範圍(前一句整個狀態);關係子句形容一個特定對象(前一句中最後一個東西)。




一. 同時進行的兩個動作


/// While S1 + be + V-ing, S2 + be + V-ing = S1 + be + V-ing, while S2 + be + V-ing

/// While S1 + Vpt., S2 + Vpt.



1. While I was busy cramming for the exam, my little brother was lying on the sofa, acting like a couch potato.

2. I listened carefully, with hot tears welling into my eyes, while she shared with me some beautiful reminiscence in her childhood.



二. 先後陸續發生、流水帳式


/// S + V1,V2, V3, and V4

/// S + V1,V2-ing, V3-ing, and V4-ing

/// When/ As soon as/ On V-ing/ S1 + Vpt., S2 + Vpt.

/// The moment/ minute/ instant S1 + Vpt., S2 + Vpt.

/// Directly/ Immediately/ Instantly/ Once S1 + Vpt., S2 + Vpt.

/// On + V-ing, S + V

/// S1 + had no sooner Vpp. than + S2 + Vpt.

/// S1 + had hardly/ scarcely Vpp. when/ before + S2 + Vpt. (一......就......;當......馬上就......)

/// It was not until... that S + Vpt. = Not until... + Aux.(助動詞) VR + S (直到......才......)

/// Just as/ when S1 + Vpt., S2 + Vpt. (前後動作連接較為緊湊時就用這句)


1. When he was told by the teacher to repeat a year, he cried out immediately.

2. The moment she got the dear-John letter from her boyfriend, she was beside herself with her eyes coming into tears immediately.

3. The shower had no sooner passed than a beautiful rainbow appeared in the sky.

4. Not until I saved enough money, did I go abroad for further studies.

5. The dog was standing in front of the hot dog stand with his mouth watering.

6. If the parents are stricter, limiting television time for their children, then these negative effects are avoidable.



三. 強調先後陸續發生


/// After/ When S1 + had + Vpp.(先), S2 + Vpt.(後)

/// When S1 + Vpt.(後), S2 + had + Vpp.(先)

/// By + 未來時間(後), S will + have + Vpp.(先)


1. When it suddenly occurred to her that she had left the passport at home, she had been standing at the checking counter for more than two hours.

2. When/ After she had got all the files thoroughly checked, she gave them to the general manager.

3. By 2012, a well-organized plan will have been established.



四. 前景(Foreground)-背景(Background)

/// When/ While/ As S1 + be V-ing, S2 + Vpt.

/// S1 + be V-ing, when S2 + Vpt.

/// As S1 + Vpt. S2 + Vpt.


1. Strike while the iron is hot.

2. While you are away, I will take care of everything for you.

3. As the sun rose, the fog soon disappeared.

4. Last night when I was taking a shower, a strong earthquake suddenly took place.



五. 兩個動作幾乎同時發生

/// S1 + was on the point/ verge of V-ing when S2 + Vpt./ had + Vpp.

/// S1 + was about to VR when S2 + Vpt./ had Vpp.


1. I was about to tell you the secret when he came into my room.

2. When you phoned me last night, I was about to watch a baseball game.

3. I tried to catch the point while he was reading the article.






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